AD Is No Joke

… but if you have it you will not appreciate nor be offended by anything written here.

Nancy and Ronnie go to a restaurant in California not too far from their ranch.

Reagan

The waiter says, My name is Alfons and I will be your server… the special today is Lomito a la Pobre. Nancy says, I will have that. And what about the vegetable? replies the waiter. He will have the same, says Nancy.

Bacterial biofilms may play a role in lupus, research finds

Understanding how biofilms trigger autoimmunity may ultimately lead to changes in patient treatment, Dr. Gallucci said. “So understanding how the biofilms affect flares could lead to a different treatment approach. Now, they give immune suppressive drugs. Maybe you want to do something else, like treat the underlying infection.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150706154855.htm

 

Alzheimer’s Disease: Assessing the Role of Spirochetes, Biofilms, the Immune System, and Amyloid-β with Regard to Potential Treatment and Prevention

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an infectious disease caused by spirochetes, and these spirochetes form biofilms, which attract the innate immune system.

Where spirochetes have been found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it may be considered an infectious disease; this is the first and most important consideration [1, 2]. It is also a chronic disease, a biofilm-associated disease, [3] and an autoimmune disease [4]. Further, it is a debilitating disease, a socially-destructive disease, an exceedingly expensive disease, and, lastly, a deadly disease [5]. This review will focus on the biofilm portion of the disorder as well as the autoimmune response. It will also touch on some rational therapeutic concepts for this most irrational of diseases.

The infectious nature of AD was revealed when spirochetes (both dental and Lyme) were shown to be present in the brains of affected patients [1]. The dental microbes travel from the oral cavity during times of disruption of the dental plaque and subsequent bacteremia following dental procedures; i.e., any time blood is seen. The hippocampus (which is the initial site of cerebral involvement in AD) is approximately 4 cm from the posterior pharynx. Lyme borrelia travel to the brain via the blood stream during the secondary stage of that disease following the erythema migrans lesion [6]. This secondary stage is characterized by fever, myalgias, arthralgias, and other systemic symptoms. The spirochetes have an affinity for neural tissue and pass through the blood-brain barrier easily [7].

Once the spirochetes are in the brain, they attach, divide (albeit very, very slowly) [8], and multiply. When they reach a quorum, they begin to spin out a biofilm (Fig. 1) [9]. This represents approximately 150 spirochetal cells which are 0.3 microns in diameter (10 cells are necessary on a two-dimensional culture plate for a quorum to begin). Because of the exceedingly slow division, it takes approximately 2 years to accumulate sufficient organisms to make one biofilm. The biofilm is protective and is a response of the organisms to ensure their survival, inasmuch as it encases them in “slime” (Fig. 2).

Quorum sensing is one triggering mechanism for the production of biofilms; other organisms in other diseases may form biofilms when subjected to different stimuli. These stimuli include salt and water, as seen in eczema and tinea versicolor [10, 11]. Low dose antibiotics and quorum sensing are seen in psoriasis [12] and arthritis [4]. Further, elevated temperatures and exposure to alcohol and other chemicals promote biofilms [13].

None of the commonly used antibiotics penetrate biofilms; and, none of the immunologic molecules from either arm of the immune system, whether innate or adaptive, are able to penetrate either.

…This is the very essence of autoimmunity, namely the body attacking itself; this occurs when the body’s own innate immune system produces TNF-α or Aβ and attacks the biofilm encasing the spirochetes. In the process of doing this, the surrounding tissue is destroyed instead. Such is the case with the biofilm produced by staphylococcus in eczema and streptococcus in psoriasis; these biofilms call forth the innate immune system and the whole process of tissue destruction is set in motion [4]. The consequences of AD are much more dire however, because they lead to total destruction of the mind.

Where the pathology is the same and where both diseases are caused by spirochetes, and where spirochetes are sensitive to penicillin, a reasonable approach would be to follow the same treatment schedule as syphilis [21]. With that treatment, penicillin administered at any time prior to the onset of tertiary syphilis is curative. The same can reasonably be said for AD; penicillin administered any time prior to the onset of tertiary disease would also be curative. Lyme disease is most closely aligned with syphilis with erythema migrans equivalent to the chancre. In most cases, it is one tick bite compared to one chancre, so the treatment could be reasonably the same [7].

None of this is codified; but, the current treatment is most likely harmful with the biofilms being dispersed without the spirochetes being killed. This would conceivably lead to many more biofilms, because all the spirochetes within the previous biofilm are capable of making new biofilms.

The story of AD is then one of spirochetes that make biofilms that activate the innate immune system. The first responder is TLR 2 and TLR 2 generates NF-kB and TNF-α that not only damage tissue in an attempt to kill the biofilm-encased spirochetes, but also lead to the production of Aβ. All of the foregoing leads to dementia. Treatment with a bactericidal antibiotic with a concomitant biofilm disperser seems most reasonable; but, as has been stated previously, any neurologic damage is irreversible. It is therefore of the utmost importance to treat early in the course of this disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008232/

Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques

The present results demonstrate that Aβ and bacterial DNA are important constituents of pure in vitro Borrelia biofilms and those formed in senile plaques in vivo. These results are additional evidence that senile plaques are formed by spirochetal colonies and correspond to bacterial biofilms. Biofilm formation in senile plaques further sustains chronic infection and inflammation and contributes to the development of slowly progressive dementia in AD.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981904/

 

 

 

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Glycerol, Glycerine, Glycerite

Many healthy and beneficial uses in the garden, in the kitchen, in the pantry, in the medicine chest, in the locker room. Some endurance athletes ingest glycerol to improve hydration during exercise. It has a sweet taste but as a carbohydrate its energy value is greater than common sugar with less glycemic and insulemic effects.

Works so well that the World Anti-Doping Agency banned it! (No, they banned it not because it is harmful,  it is not, nor that it enhanced performance in any way inherently illegal, but because it might possibly be used to mask substances that are.) Guilty by association, like DMSO with sled dogs.

This patent application (following the wiki information) for applications of glycerol as a fungicide in agriculture describes some uses and tangentially suggests others.

glycerol apples

Fruit (apple) trees treated with glycerine have softer leaves which are greener in colour than trees in the comparative test treated with the synthetic fungicide Maconzeb.

>As a sugar substitute, it has approximately 27 kilocalories per teaspoon (sugar has 20) and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. It does not feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavitiesGlycerol has a caloric density similar to table sugar, but a lowerglycemic index and different metabolic pathway within the body, so some dietary advocates[who?] accept glycerol as a sweetener compatible with low-carbohydrate diets.      It is also recommended as an additive when using polyol sweeteners such as erythritol and xylitol which have a cooling effect, due to its heating effect in the mouth, if the cooling effect is not wanted.      When used as a primary “true” alcohol-free botanical extraction solvent in non-tincture based methodologies, glycerol has been shown to possess a high degree of extractive versatility for botanicals including removal of numerous constituents and complex compounds, with an extractive power that can rival that of alcohol and water–alcohol solutions.[citation needed] That glycerol possesses such high extractive power assumes it is utilized with dynamic methodologies as opposed to standard passive “tincturing” methodologies that are better suited to alcohol. Glycerol possesses the intrinsic property of not denaturing or rendering a botanical’s constituents inert (as alcohols – i.e. ethyl (grain) alcohol, methyl (wood) alcohol, etc., do). Glycerol is a stable preserving agent for botanical extracts that, when utilized in proper concentrations in an extraction solvent base, does not allow inverting or reduction-oxidation of a finished extract’s constituents, even over several years.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycerol[13]   

(Still trying to find out what are “dynamic extractive” methods referred to above!)

The present invention relates to the use of glycerine and/or its derived compounds as an active fungicidal and bactericidal substance. The present invention also relates to a fungicidal and bacterial compound comprising glycerine and/or its derivatives as an active substance, in combination with at least one other active substance selected from the common fungicides and bactericides, as well as use of the compound in the preventive and/or curative treatment of plants…     This problem (with existing fungicides uses) was solved by the Applicant, who surprisingly found that glycerine as it is or in a water-based solution possesses unexpected fungicidal and bactericidal properties against some types of fungi and bacteria. In particular, glycerine as it is, or a water-based solution containing glycerine, is successfully used in the preventive and/or curative treatment of many diseases which affect and devastate agricultural crops, in particular in wine growing, vegetable growing and fruit growing. Moreover, the Applicant found that as an active substance glycerine demonstrates a greater fungicidal and bactericidal action when used in combination with other substances with a known fungicidal and/or bactericidal action.

Basically, glycerine competes with the fungi and bacteria for what water there is available. By a hygroscopic action, the glycerine extracts water from the bacteria and fungi, preventing the latter from proliferating.

Glycerine also acts indirectly by stimulating the plant’s defences against infections caused by fungi and bacteria.

Glycerine has a softening and toning effect on the surface of the leaf, stimulating the formation of chlorophyll and unfolding of the leaf.     https://www.google.com/patents/WO2002069708A1?cl=en

More related to glycerol and plant growth here:     http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/46/12/1650.full

(A month ago I had several plants suffering fungus/mildew on the stems and leaves. I mixed glycerol, powdered sulfur and horsetail powder then applied it on the worst spots on the lower stem. Now recovered!)

Many studies have shown that increases in body water by 1 L or more are achievable through glycerol hyperhydration. This article analyses the evidence for glyceroluse in facilitating hyperhydration and rehydration, and provides guidelines for athletes wishing to use this compound. An analysis of the studies in this area indicates that endurance athletes intending to hyperhydrate with glycerol should ingestglycerol 1.2 g/kg BW in 26 mL/kg BW of fluid over a period of 60 minutes, 30 minutes prior to exercise. The effects ofglycerol on total body water when used during rehydration are less well defined, due to the limited studies conducted. However, ingesting glycerol 0.125 g/kg BW in a volume equal to 5 mL/kg BW during exercise will delay dehydration, while adding glycerol 1.0 g/kg BW to each 1.5 L of fluid consumed following exercise will accelerate the restoration of plasma volume. Side effects from glycerol ingestion are rare, but include nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort and light-headedness. In summary, glycerol ingestion before, during or following exercise is likely to improve the hydration state of the endurance athlete.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20092365

Improvements in endurance time, time trial performance and total power and work output have been seen during exercise following glycerol-induced hyperhydration or rehydration. Another recent trial showed that the increased body weight associated with the extra fluid does not inadvertently affect running economy. Concerns that the haemodilution associated with the fluid retention in the vascular space may be sufficient to mask illegal doping practices by athletes led the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to add glycerol to its list of prohibited substances in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that doses of > 0.032 ± 0.010 g/kg lean body mass (much lower than those required for rehydration) will result in urinary excretion that may be detectable, so athletes under the WADA jurisdiction should be cautious to limit their inadvertent glycerol intake.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075560

I Am Curious Yellow: Berberine

barberry_rosette

Barberry contains berberine

Another example of the historical flaws and limitations of proxy and mechanism-based research:

…Blood clearance is so fast and biotransformation in the liver so rapid that berberine disappears from the blood faster than it can be measured. Berberine metabolites may be responsible for berberine’s biological action.  New clinical applications for the alkaloid berberine have come to light in recent years. Applications related to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and berberine’s possible therapeutic use in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipdemia are reviewed in this article. Potential applications related to cancer are not discussed here but are reserved for a second review.   http://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2012-12/clinical-applications-berberine

This review will focus on a few natural products, especially on resveratrol (RES), curcumin (CUR) and berberine (BBR). RES is obtained from the skins of grapes and other fruits and berries. RES may extend human lifespan by activating the sirtuins and SIRT1 molecules. CUR is isolated from the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa). CUR is currently used in the treatment of many disorders, especially in those involving an inflammatory process. CUR and modified derivatives have been shown to have potent anti-cancer effects, especially on cancer stem cells (CSC). BBR is also isolated from various plants (e.g., Coptis chinensis) and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat diseases such as adult- onset diabetes. Understanding the benefits of these and other nutraceuticals may result in approaches to improve human health.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509453/

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids. It is found in such plants as Berberis [e.g. Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Berberis aristata (tree turmeric)], Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellowroot), Phellodendron amurense [2] (Amur corktree), Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread), Tinospora cordifolia, Argemone mexicana (prickly poppy) and Eschscholzia californica (Californian poppy). In vitro it exerts significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In animal models berberine has neuroprotective and cardiovascular protective effects. In humans, its lipid-lowering and insulin-resistance improving actions have clearly been demonstrated in numerous randomized clinical trials. Moreover, preliminary clinical evidence suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases. Altogether the available evidences suggest a possible application of berberine use in the management of chronic cardiometabolic disorders.    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27671811

 

Boreal Medicinal Plants

This is the full table/list of Medicinal plants used by the Aboriginal people of Boreal Canada (as published in the article)-a list of plants by Latin name, common name, and uses…

Unfortunately there is no direct link to this online in the original; it’s a link at the bottom of the full pubmed article but does not show as any url that could have been put here. Bookmark this page to have simpler access.

“The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research.”

Additional file 1: Medicinal plants used by the Aboriginal people of boreal Canada                           from the document

Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316145/

The Latin and Vernacular (common) names are centered vertically in each cell.

You can use find function in most browsers to locate info. It’s a long list/big file! If you don’t know the Latin/botanical name but do know a common name then you can use the find/search for that name to locate any records/fields with the common name.

I have added info of which I am reasonably certain with prefix &* because that string did not occur in the original. For example, &*rat root in the Vernacular names for the two Acorus listings.

Latin name, Botanical family and Growth habit

Vernacular name(s)

Part(s) used, Use(s) and Reference(s)

Abies balsamea(L.) Mill.

Pinaceae, Tree

balsam fir (Eng.); sapin baumier (Fr.); pikew-ahtik, nupukasik, pīkowāhtik, napakāsīt, nāpukasītuk, nāpukasī (Cree); sta’kwin (Malecite); a’ninandak’, ini’nandŏk, ne-naig-wah-dayg, jîngo’b (Ojibwa); kokôkwank (Abenaki); cigubi, irimucit (Atikamekw); ilnasht, innâsht (Innu)

Gum: Applied over cuts, burns, impetigo, sores, scabs, abscesses, ulcers, grip, insect bites, boils, swellings, infections and cuts as a healer [44; Mi’kmaq: 60, 62; Ojibwa: 84, 87; Algonquians: 63; Algonquin: 68, 69; Atikamekw: 73; Malecite: 65; Innu: 72; Cree: 80; Dene: 17]. Used to stimulate appetite [Innu: 72] or for cough, cuts, constipation and to favour childbirth [Montagnais: 71]. Used as an antiseptic for itching or scabies [Abenaki: 67]. Used to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 87], or snow blindness [Cree: 80]. Boiled and drunk as a cough and cold medicine [Ojibwa: 86; Atikamekw: 73; Cree: 80]. Used as an emetic [Algonquin: 75], for menstrual irregularity, or skin problems [Cree: 95]. Burned and the fumes inhaled to treat convulsions [Ojibwa: 47]. Combined with bear grease as a hair ointment [Ojibwa: 47]. Combined with crushed bark to treat soreness of the chest resulting from cold [Algonquians: 63].

Sap: Used internally as a remedy for gonorrhea and for cold in the chest [Ojibwa: 44], or as a cure-all drink [Dene: 13]. Used for snow blindness [Cree: 81] or to treat skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96]. Poultice used in arthritis and muscular pain [Cree: 96].

Branches and needles: Boiled and mixed with grease to be used against stomachache and constipation, sometimes along withLycopodium [Montagnais: 71]. Dried and mixed with animal fat to be applied to burns [Cree: 81]. Boiled and steam used to treat flu [Dene: 13], cold and sore throat [Cree: 81]. Used as a pillow in sore throat and cough [Cree: 81]. Used for making poultices and as a source of laxative tea for women after childbirth [Algonquin: 69]. Placed upon live coals and the smoke inhaled for colds [Ojibwa: 87] or asthma [Cree: 13]. Tea from tops or combs to cure colic [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Applied to sore areas, or boiled, cooled and rubbed on chest and back to treat asthma [Cree: 81]. Pounded and put on the chest to relieve pain [Cree: 81].

Cones: Boiled and the liquid is used as a tea to fight nausea [Montagnais: 71]. Juice used as a laxative, or buds or young cones steeped with bark of young hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and oak (Quercus rubra) taken as a cure for diarrhoea [Malecite: 65].

Bark: General medicine [Cree: 42], part of a compound applied topically for pain relief, and another compound preparation drunk after childbirth [Cree: 13]. Tea used as a “women’s medicine” [Cree: 96]. Used to prepare a decoction to induce perspiration [Ojibwa: 44] or diaphoresis [Algonquians: 63]. Dried bark with pitch blisters ground and mixed with lard to make a poultice applied to infected wounds or for arthritis [Cree: 13], or grated with other plants and the resulting powder mixed with water to make a paste applied to infections and boils [Cree: 13]. Used against anorexia and shiver [Montagnais: 71]. Infusion used for tuberculosis [Cree: 95]. Bark steeped and given in initial stages of gonorrhoea [Algonquians: 63; Malecite: 65]. Boiled and mixed with Caribou wheat (Eriophorum sp.) for cancer treatment [Dene: 17]. Poultice used to treat facial paralysis, skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96]. ‘

Inner bark: Eaten to treat stomach problems [Dene: 17]. Boiled to a jelly used for treating burns [Algonquin: 75; Cree: 80], sores and swellings [Algonquians: 63] or drunk as a general tonic for cold, influenza, etc. [Algonquin: 75; Cree, Dene, Metis: 13; Dene: 17]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 82, 83].

Roots: Used for heart disease [Algonquin: 69]. Decoction taken for chest cold, pain, and backache, as an emetic and against tuberculosis [Cree: 13]. Decoction sprinkled on hot stones and steam used to ease rheumatic joints [Ojibwa: 47].

Buds:Boiled and drunk against “inward disorders” [Cree: 78].

Abieslasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.

Pinaceae, Tree

subalpine fir (Eng.); sapin subalpin (Fr.); tsutsi (Dene)

Gum:Poultice used for backpain [Dene: 98].

Acer negundoL.

Aceraceae, Tree

box elder (Eng.); érable négondo, érable à Giguère (Fr.); adjagobi’mûk (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Steeped and used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 87].

Acer nigrumMichx. f.

Aceraceae, Tree

black maple (Eng.); érable noir (Fr.); ishig’omeaush’ (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Decoction used for diarrhoea [Ojibwa: 84].

Acer pensylvanicumL.

Aceraceae, Tree

moosewood, striped maple (Eng.); érable de Pennsylvanie, bois barré, bois d’orignal (Fr.); mōn’zomĭsh’ (Ojibwa); onsé’gakuk (Abenaki)

Medicinal tea [Algonquin: 69].

Bark: Steeped and made into a poultice for swelling of the limbs [Algonquians: 63]. Used for gonorrhea, kidney troubles and for blood spitting [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Bark used for bronchial trouble [Abenaki: 67]. Decoction drunk as a laxative [91].

Inner bark: Boiled and taken as an emetic [Ojibwa: 84].

Acer rubrumL.

Aceraceae, Tree

red maple (Eng.); érable rouge (Fr.); cicigîme’wîc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Tea used to wash and cure sore eyes [91, Ojibwa: 87].

Acer saccharinumL.

Aceraceae, Tree

silver maple, soft maple, (Eng.); érable argenté (Fr.); innīnâ’tik, sigme-winš (Ojibwa)

Bark: Boiled and applied to sores [Ojibwa: 85]. Steeped and applied for chest pain [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Inner bark:Decoction used for diarrhoea, or mixed with aBetuladecoction and used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 84].

Acersaccharum Marsh.

Aceraceae, Tree

sugar maple (Eng.); érable à sucre (Fr.); a’nina’tĭg (Ojibwa)

Sap: Used as a tonic [55]. Used with a decoction ofCaltha palustris as a cough syrup [Ojibwa: 88].

Bark:Used as a tonic or physic [91].

Acer spicatumLam.

Aceraceae, Tree

mountain maple (Eng.); érable à épis (Fr.); malsuna’u (Malecite); cacagobi’mûk (Ojibwa); webanatuk (Atikamekw)

Branches: Pith put into the eye to remove foreign matter, or soaked in water to make a lotion for treating sore eyes [Ojibwa: 87].

Bark: Steeped in water and the water used to cure eyes [Malecite: 65].

Roots: Boiled and applied to wounds and abscess [Atikamekw: 73].

Achillea millefoliumL.

Asteraceae, Herb

yarrow, milfoil (Eng.); achillée millefeuille, herbe à dindes (Fr.); wapunewusk, wapanowask, wapānaskiy(h)k, astēskotawān, astawēskōtawan, miskigonimaski, oskānīmaskīgī, osgunīmasgigah, wīpōwānīwisikwān, kāwāpistikwānīkāpawik, āmowask (Cree); t’a’nchaydelgai (Chipewyan); sa’pagol (Malecite); a’djidamo’wano, adjidamo’anûk (Ojibwa); namahiba’go (Abenaki); teskwemaskiki (Atikamekw); kâuâpishtukuâniâshiti tshishiteu-nîpîsha (Montagnais); at”àn dagàii (Dene)

Whole plant: Used to stop bleeding [Dene: 13; Cree: 93]. Boiled until thick and used as a liniment [Malecite: 65]. Used for fever, cold and other respiratory disorders [Mi’kmaq: 43; Atikamekw: 73; Abenaki: 67; Algonquin: 69; Montagnais/Innu: 60, 71, 72]. Dried, mashed into a powder, and rubbed with leaves or bark on swelling, bruise, or sprain [Mi’kmaq: 43, 61]. Mixed with lard and applied to infected sores [Cree: 13]. Decoction used to treat diarrhoea [Cree: 13]. Soaking in a bath of hot water andAchillae millefolium helps treat arthritis or aching bones, and a twice-boiled decoction of the plant can be drunk after the bath [Cree: 13]. Boiled and wrapped on a sore body or used to wash the body to treat pain [Dene: 17]. Tea for cough and ulcers [Dene: 99] or stomach problems [Cree: 96]. Boiled and taken to treat diabetes [Cree: 93].

Above-ground parts: Poultice used to treat headaches including migraines, arthritis, muscular pain, sore back, or body pain [Cree: 13; 96]. Tea drunk as a painkiller [Cree: 13] as well as for sore throat, cough and cold [Cree: 96]. Decoction drunk to treat sore chest [Cree: 13]. Poultice or tea used to treat colds, headaches, to stop bleeding or to relieve a sore throat, itchiness and other skin problems [Dene: 100].

Leaves: Dried and boiled to make a decoction to treat diabetes [Cree: 13]. Crushed and used as a snuff for headaches, or boiled and the steam inhaled and the decoction drunk, or flower and leaves are burned and the smoke inhaled [Chippewa: 47; Cree: 13; Atikamekw: 73; Algonquin: 69]. Chewed and applied to burns, cuts or bee stings [Algonquin: 68; Cree: 13]. Infusion used as a wash for pimples, mosquito bites or other skin eruptions [Chippewa: 47; Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Poultice used in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96].

Roots: An ointment rubbed on sores, aching bones or swellings to relieve the pain, and a decoction of the same mix is drunk to help reduce swelling [Cree: 13]. Seeds and roots are boiled and the steam used to treat sore eyes [Cree: 13].

Flowers: Burned (sometimes with leaves) and the smoke used to fumigate a room in which someone is sick [Dene: 13]. Florets placed on a bed of coals and smoke inhaled to break a fever [Ojibwa: 87]. Fresh flower heads chewed and applied to bee stings, cuts, sores [Cree, Metis: 13] or placed in the nostril to stop a nosebleed [Cree: 13, 93]. Decoction drunk as a spring tonic, to regain lost appetite, to treat menstrual cramps or heavy menstruation, to aid in childbirth to relieve labor pains and to stop haemorrhaging [Cree, Dene: 13]. Used to treat sinus or chest congestion [Cree: 13]. Dried flower heads boiled and the decoction used as a wash for skin rashes or sores [Cree, Metis: 13]. Dried and smoked for headache [Chipewyan: 92]. Boiled and drunk to prevent nosebleed, the liquid can also be used to soothe infected skin and sunburns, or rashes, including eczema [Dene: 99]. Poultice used in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96]. Boiled and drunk to treat cough or liver ailments [Dene: 98].

Achillea millefoliumssp. lanulosa(Nuttall) Piper var. lanulosa

Syn.:A.millefolium L. var.borealis (Bong.)Farw.;A. borealis Bong.

Asteraceae, Herb

boreal yarrow, Siberian yarrow (Eng.); achillée laineuse (Fr.); at”àn dagàu (Dene)

Above-ground parts: Poultice or tea used to treat cold, headache, to stop bleeding or to relieve sore throat, itchiness and other skin ailments [Dene: 100].

Achilleamillefolium L. var.occidentalis DC.

Syn.:A. lanulosaNutt.

Asteraceae, Herb

western yarrow (Eng.); achillée laineuse (Fr.); wīcipōwānīwistikwān, kāwāpistikwānīkāpawik (Cree); wa’bîgwûn (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Used in bruises, swellings and sprains [Mi’kmaq: 61].

Roots:Decoction taken for teething related sickness [Cree: 95].

Flowers:Crushed withMentha arvensis, wrapped in a cloth and dipped in water to clean pus from the gums of a teething child [Cree: 95].

Leaves: Poultice to cure the bite of a spider [Ojibwa: 87].

Achillea sibiricaLedeb.

Asteraceae, Herb

Siberian yarrow (Eng.); achillée de Sibérie (Fr.); wīcipōwānīwistikwān, kāwāpistikwānīkāpawik, āmowask (Cree)

Roots: Decoction with other herbs taken internally for sickness realted to teething, chewed root applied to sores on the gums [Cree: 95].

Above-ground parts: Tea used in sore throat, cough and cold [Cree: 96].

Flowers:Boiled and drunk to treat cough and liver ailments [Dene: 98].

Aconogonon alaskanum(W. Wight ex Hultén) Soják var. alaskanumSyn.:Polygonumalpinum All.;P. alaskanum W. Wight ex Hultén

Polygonaceae, Herb

Alaska wild rhubarb (Eng.); renouée d’Alaska (Fr.)ts’u gyùu (Dene)

Leaves:Used on burns [Dene: 100].

Acorusamericanus (Raf.) Raf.

Araceae, Herb

&*rat root, American sweetflag (Eng.); acore d’Amérique (Fr.)

Rhizome:Poultice used to treat skin disorders, bee stings, cuts and burns, headache, arthritis, muscular aches and pains. Sucked or drunk as tea to treat sore throat, cough and cold. Tea used in diabetes, fever, heart problems and as a wash to treat facial paralysis [Cree: 96]. Boiled and taken to treat diarrhoea, high blood pressure, sore throat, flu, cold, headaches, and pain [Cree: 93].

*Acorus calamus L.

Araceae, Herb

&*rat root, sweet flag (Eng.); acorus roseau, belle-angélique (Fr.); wika (Chippewa); wachuskomechiwin, wachuskowmiytsuwin, wacaskōmīcowin, wacaskwatapih, wiy(h)kiyuw, wihkes, wīhkes, wihkis (Cree); dzëñni (Chipewyan); kiuhu’ziwazas (Malecite); wiikansh, na’bûgûck , wikĕn’, na’bugûck’ (Ojibwa); môskwas’wask (Abenaki)

Medicinal plant [Malecite: 59], componenent of many compound medicines used to treat venereal disease [Metis: 13], cough and cold [Cree: 42; Malecite: 65], heart trouble, headache, fever, infected wounds, muscle or joint pain including rheumatism [Cree: 13].

Root: Scalded (not boiled) and used as a physic [Chippewa: 47]. Used to cure a cold in the throat [Chippewa: 47; Ojibwa: 87; Algonquin: 69], fever, tootache, earache, headache [Chippewa: 47; Ojibwa: 89] or for stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87]. Used to cure open wounds [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Combined with pepperroot (Dentaria diphylla) given for heart disease and for coughs combined with cherry (Prunus virginiana) [Algonquin: 69]. Tea given to women after childbirth and used to treat the symptoms of menopause, or combined withSorbus americana and used as a tonic [Algonquin: 69]. Chewed and juice swallowed for cold, sore throat and chest congestion, or powder used to treat chest infection [Dene: 17].

Rhizome: Used as a tonic, to treat cholera, chewed against pharyngitis or for clearing the throat, an infusion is used by women in dysmenorrhea [Algonquians: 63; Chippewa: 88]. Chewed for cough [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Combined with the bark ofXanthozylon americanum, the bark of the roots ofSassafras variifoliumand roots ofAsarum canadense and steeped to make a remedy for cold, cough, and bronchial troubles [Chippewa: 85]. Carminative [Abenaki: 67], a decoction is drunk for fever and cold [44; Chippewa: 47; Cree, Dene, Metis: 13]. Pulverized and snuffed up nostrils in colds [Chippewa: 47]. Chewed and juice or decoction drunk to treat cold, cough including whooping cough, sore throat, sinus congestion, blood spitting, dry mouth, upset stomach, toothache, teething pain, rash, headache, rhumatism, muscle pain, chest pain, lower back pain, pounding heart, tonsillitis, pneumonia, diabetes, venereal disease or intestinal worms [44; Cree: 95; Cree, Dene, Metis: 13]. Chewed to treat tonsils, diabetes [Cree, Dene: 13], or to relieve fatigue on a long hike [Dene: 13]. Smoked, or chewed and the juice swallowed (or rarely boiled to make a drink) to treat cough and cold, sore throat, stomach ache, toothache, or pain. Mixed with stipe bases ofDryopteris spinulosa, roots of Aster puniceusandstems of Sorbus scopulina,boiledand drunk to relieve sore kidneys or other “internal pain”. Combined with stipe bases ofDryopteris spinulosa and beaver castor and used as a heart medicine. Boiled withAmanita muscaria to make a wash for sore eyes [Chipewyan: 92]. Steam from boiling inhaled to relieve congestion, headache, or earache [Cree: 13]. Small piece softened in water and inserted into the ear or grinded, boiled, and mixed with flour to make a batter to make a compress placed over affected ear [Cree: 13]. Smoked to treat a cough or boiled to make a wash for sore eyes [Dene: 13]. Dried and grinded or freshly grated chewed and used as a poultice to treat headache and painful joints from arthritis, muscle cramps, a decoction is drunk to aid the healing [Cree: 13]. Powdered with other herbs (Nuphar variegatum orHeracleum lanatum) applied externally to treat headache, swelling of limbs, painful joints, muscle pain, and rheumatism, or chewed for cough, cuts, toothache, earache, bellyache, or facial paralysis [Cree: 95]. Cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Actaeapachypoda Elliot

Syn.:A. alba(L.)Mill.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

white baneberry (Eng.); actée à gros pédicelles (Fr.); wapkadak (Ojibwa)

Used against menstrual disorders [Algonquin: 68].

Roots: Decoction given as a remedy for convulsions in both children and adults [Ojibwa: 85], or to slow excessive blood flow from menstruation, childbirth or wounds [Metis: 13].

Actaearacemosa L. var.racemosa

Syn.: Cimicifugaracemosa (L.) Nutt.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

cohosh root (Eng.); cimicaire à grappes (Fr.)

Roots:Used for kidney troubles [Algonquians: 63].

Actaearubra (Aiton) Willd.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

red baneberry (Eng.); actée rouge, poison de couleuvre (Fr.); maskōminānātik (Cree); odzī’bĭkĕns’, wi’cosidji’bĭk, wîckobidji’bîk (Ojibwa)

Whole plant:Used in a purgative tea [Cree: 42; Metis: 13].

Roots:Decoction made with 20 other plants and drunk to treat nose bleeding [Dene: 13]. Mixed with spruce branch tips in a decoction taken to treat stomach problems such as indigestion or constipation [Ojibwa: 87; Metis: 13]. Decoction for stomach pain [Ojibwa: 44, 84; Penobscot: 44]. Decoction or infusion given to slow heavy menstrual flow [Ojibwa: 47; Cree: 95]. Tea drunk after childbirth [Ojibwa: 87].

Adiantum pedatumL.

Pteridaceae, Herb

maidenhair fern (Eng.); adiante pédalé, capillaire du Canada (Fr.)

Plant steeped for curing fits [Algonquians: 63].

Agastache foeniculum(Pursh) Kuntze

Syn.:A.anethiodora (Nutt.)Britton

Lamiaceae, Herb

giant hyssop (Eng.); agastache fenouil (Fr.); kā-wīkīpakahk (Cree); weza’wûnûckwûk’ (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Dried and boiled with another herb to make a decoction drunk to treat stomachache [Cree: 13].

Above-ground parts: Tea used in stomach problems [Cree: 96].

Stem and leaves: Mixed with other plants to make an infusion or decoction against blood spitting [Cree: 95]. Used for cough [Dene: 13]. Poultice applied to burns [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers: Chewed as a breath freshener [Cree: 95]. Poultice made withSolidago altissimaand Rudbeckia laciniata applied to burns [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Infusion for cold, chest pain, and cough [Ojibwa: 47].

Agrimoniagryposepala Wallr.

Rosaceae, Herb

agrimony (Eng.); aigremoine à sépales crochus (Fr.); saga’tîgans (Ojibwa)

Roots:Used for urinary troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Aletrisfarinosa L.

Liliaceae, Herb

unicorn root, colicroot (Eng.); alétris farineux (Fr.)

Roots: Decoction used as a tonic and emmenagogue, and for stomachache [44].

*Alisma plantago-aquaticaL.

Alismataceae, Herb

broad-leaved water plantain (Eng.); alisma commun (Fr.); mitīhīmaskīhkīh (Cree)

Stem: Powdered stem base used as an ingredient in a many-herb remedy to treat various ailments [Cree: 95]. Dried stem base eaten directly or grated and taken in water for heart troubles, stomachache, cramps and stomach flu, constipation, prevent fainting during childbirth [Cree: 95].

Allium stellatumFraser ex Ker Gawl.

Liliaceae,Herb

wild onion (Eng.); ail étoilé (Fr.); mûckode’cigaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Boiled to obtain syrup taken to treat sore throat [55].

Roots: Decoction used for cold [Ojibwa: 47].

Alliumtricoccum Aiton

Liliaceae,Herb

wild leek (Eng.); ail des bois (Fr.); siga’gawûnj’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 47].

Alnusincana (L.) Moench ssp.rugosa (Du Roi) R.T. Clausen

Syn.:A. rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.

Betulaceae, Tree

speckled alder, mountain alder (Eng.); aulne rugueux (Fr.); wadûb’, wado’bîn (Ojibwa); mithkwatō(h)spī, atōspī, oto’pé, wdopi (Abenaki); atûshpî (Montagnais)

Bark: Used as a laxative [Cree: 95], astringent and emetic [Ojibwa: 88]. Steeped with tamarack bark for anemia [Ojibwa: 85].Chewed in ulcerated mouth [Malecite: 65]. Shavings used as a poultice for sores or applied warm to swollen areas [Ojibwa: 85]. Decoction of shavings used as wash for skin cancer, drunk for leukemia together withSalix sp., or for anemia withPrunus virginiana andRubus idaeus [Ojibwa: 85].

Inner bark:Tea used as an emetic, as a laxative, and in liver disorders [Algonquin: 69]. Decoction to wash sore eyes [Cree: 95]. Boiled to yield a red liquid used in skin troubles [Abenaki: 67; Montagnais: 71]. Decoction ofAlnus incana andViburnum acerifolium taken as an emetic [Ojibwa: 47]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 82, 83].

Twigs and stems:Decoction of branches as wash for burns or sore mouth and decoction of stem used for ulcers or bleeding ulcers [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots:Hemostatic [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction taken to ease labor in childbirth [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction made from equal parts of roots ofCornus alternifolia, Cornus sericea andAlnus incana used as a wash or compress to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea used for blood stools as an astringent and coagulant [Ojibwa: 87]. Barkscraped off the root and mixed with molasses for toothache [Algonquin: 69].

Alnus rubraBong.

Betulaceae, Tree

red alder (Eng.); aulne rouge (Fr.)

Bark: Steeped and drunk to stop cholera [Montagnais: 70].

Alnussp.

Betulaceae, Tree

alder (Eng.); aulne (Fr.)

Boiled, mixed with porcupine fat, and taken as a physic [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Bark: Boiled, then water is used to stop cramps and retching [Algonquians: 63], whereas pulp is used as a poultice for sore eyes [Algonquin: 75]. Steeped in water and taken for fever, stomach cramps, kidney problems, and asthma [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Tea used in diphtheria [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Leaves: Used in fits [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Bark and leaves: Used to cover body to treat fever or festers [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Twigs:Boiled and drunk to purify blood [Mi’kmaq: 60].

Alnusviridis (Chaix) DC.

Betulaceae, Tree

green alder (Eng.); atōspīah, atōsbīah, atōspī, māthatōspī, mithkwatōspi, miskwatōspi, mihkwatōspi (Cree)

Decoction used in a steam treatment to trigger menstruation [Cree: 95].

Bark: Used in dropsy [Cree: 42].

Flowers: Green female catkins boiled to make a medicinal tea for treating venereal disease in men [Dene: 13].

Stem: Boiled to make an emetic for treating an upset stomach [Dene: 13].

Roots: Decoction drunk to relieve menstrual cramps [Dene: 13], or used to treat scalding from boiling water [Cree: 13].

Alnusviridis (Chaix) DC. ssp.crispa (Aiton) Turrill

Syn:Alnuscrispa (Aiton) Pursh

Betulaceae, Tree

green alder (Eng.); aulne crispé (Fr.); k’áilisën (Chipewyan); māthatō(h)spī (Cree); shakâu tshîtshue (Montagnais); k’oh (Dene)

Decoction used in a steam treatment to trigger menstruation [Cree: 95]. Tea used to treat stomach pain [Dene: 100].

Cones:Boiled to make a tea to treat venereal disease in men [Chipewyan: 92].

Stem:Tea taken for stomach pain[Chipewyan: 92].

Inner bark: Tea used against diarrhoea [Montagnais: 71].

Bark:Boiled and drunk to treat stomach ache, or cooled and rubbed on skin to heal sores, scabs, eczema, insect bites, sunburns, rashes and aching joints [Dene: 99].

Buds:Chewed and juice swallowed for cold. Boiled and drunk for cold or applied to sores, or used for bathing to soothe eczema and rashes [Dene: 99].

Roots:Mashed and eaten to help with stomach ache [Dene: 99].

Leaves:Chewed or crushed and put on bee stings [Dene: 100].

Amanita muscariaFr.

Amanitaceae, Fungi

fly agaric (Eng.); amanite tue-mouche (Fr.)

Boiled with other plants to make eye-drops for sore eyes [Dene: 13].

Amelanchier alnifolia(Nutt.) Nutt ex M. Roem.

Rosaceae, Shrub

Saskatoon serviceberry, juneberry (Eng.); amélanchier à feuilles d’aulne, petites poires (Fr.); misaskatoomena, misakwatōminatik, msāskwatuwmin, saskwatoomina, saskwatōmin (Cree); k’ęàjie (Dene)

Roots and stem: Decoction drunk to treat lung problems including tuberculosis [Cree: 13].

Roots: Decoction with other herbs given to children to stop diarrhoea [Cree: 13]. Decoction used in teething, chest pain, cough, and lung infection [Cree: 95]. Tea used in stomach problems [Cree: 96]. Herbal water used for back paralysis [Cree: 93].

Buds: Decoction drunk to slow diarrhoea [Cree: 13]. Tea used in stomach problems [Cree: 96].

Stem: Decoction mixed withSymphoricarpos albus against fever [Cree: 95]. Tea drunk to cure urinary problems [Dene: 101].

Berries: Tea drunk for whooping cough. Berry buds boiled and tea drunk to cure headache, stomach pain and diarrhoea [Dene: 101].

Amelanchierbartramiana (Tausch) M. Roem.

Rosaceae, Tree

Bartram’s shadbush (Eng.); amélanchier, de Bartram (Fr.); atûminânakashî (Montagnais)

Bark: Boiled and the preparation applied to wounds or taken as a tea to reduce cough [Montagnais: 71].

Amelanchiercanadensis (L.) Medik.

Rosaceae, Tree

shadbush, serviceberry (Eng.); amélanchier du Canada (Fr.); gizigwa’komĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Roots:Steeped and taken to slow heavy menstrual flow [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction combined with roots of cherry and young oak taken to treat dysentery; [Ojibwa: 47].

Bark: Decoction combined with pin cherry, choke cherry and wild cherry taken to treat “female diseases” [Ojibwa: 47].

Inner bark: Decoction used as a disinfectant [Ojibwa: 47].

Amelanchierlaevis Wiegand

Rosaceae, Tree

smooth juneberry, glabrous shadbush, (Eng.); amélanchier glabre, petites poires (Fr.); goziga’gominaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Bark: Tea for the expectant mother [Ojibwa: 87].

Amorphacanescens Pursh

Fabaceae, Shrub

leadplant (Eng.); faux indigo (Fr.); we’abŏnag’kak (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction for stomachache [Ojibwa: 84].

Amphicarpaeabracteata (L.) var.comosa (L.)Fernald

Syn.:Falcatacomosa (L.)Kuntze

Fabaceae, Vine

hogpeanut (Eng.); amphicarpe bractéolée (Fr.)

Roots:Decoction combined with other plants taken as a physic [Ojibwa: 47].

Anaphalismargaritacea (L.) Benth.

Asteraceae, Herb

pearly overlasting (Eng.); anaphale marguerite, immortelle (Fr.); wa’bigwûn, basi’bagûk (Ojibwa); kawapukanik (Atikamekw)

Plant decoction used for coughing and consumption [Algonquians: 63]. Poultice used against burns [Algonquin: 68].

Flowers:Decoction used in paralysis [Ojibwa: 47]. Powder sprinkled on live coals and inhaled by a person who has a stroke of paralysis [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves:Boiled and applied to burns and skin problems [Atikamekw: 73].

Andromeda polifoliaL. var. latifoliaAiton

Syn:Andromedapolifolia L. var.glaucophylla (Link) DC.

Ericaceae, Shrub

glaucous-leaved bog rosemary (Eng.); andromède glauque (Fr.); kakouboushk (Cree)

Branches:Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Stem and roots:Boiled and drunk to treat stomach problems [Dene: 98].

Androsaceseptentrionalis L.

Primulaceae, Herb

northern fairy-candelabra (Eng.); androsace septentrionale (Fr.)

Whole plant:Decoction used to wash hair or any body part to kill lice [Dene: 98].

Andropogongerardii Vitman

Syn.:Andropogonfurcatus Muhl. ex Willd.

Poaceae, Herb

big bluestem (Eng.); barbon de Gérard (Fr.); mûckode’kanĕs (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken for stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction, alone or withSymphoricarpos albus, used to treat stoppage of urine [Ojibwa: 47].

Anemone canadensisL.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

Canadian anemone (Eng.); anémone du Canada (Fr.); wabesgung, mîdewidji’bîk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Chewed slowly to a pulp and laid on a wound, serves as a styptic [Ojibwa: 85]. Steeped to make a wash for obstinate, scabby sores [Ojibwa: 85]. Eaten to clear the throat [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used for pains in the lumbar region [Ojibwa: 84].

Leaves: Bruised and placed in nostril to stop nasal hemorrhage, or used as a styptic [Ojibwa: 85].

Anemonecylindrica A. Gray

Ranunculaceae, Herb

thimble-weed (Eng.); anémone cylindrique (Fr.); gande gwa’sonînke’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used to relieve lung congestion and tuberculosis [Ojibwa: 87].

Anemonemultifida Poir.

Syn.:A.globosa (Torr. & A. Gray) Nutt. ex Pritz.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

wind-flower (Eng.); anémone multifide (Fr.)

Used against headache [Algonquin: 68].

Anemonesp.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

anemone (Eng.); anémone (Fr.); wisŏg’ibŏk’ (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Dried, powdered and used as an errhine, against headache [Ojibwa: 84].

Antennariahowellii Greene ssp.neodioica (Greene) Bayer

Syn.:A.neodioica Greene

Asteraceae, Herb

lesser cat’s-foot (Eng.); antennaire néodioïque, immortelle (Fr.); gagîge’bûg (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Tea given to a mother after childbirth [Ojibwa: 87].

Antennarianeglecta Greene

Asteraceae, Herb

lesser pussytoes (Eng.); antennaire négligée (Fr.); gagîge’bûg (Ojibwa)

Infusion given as a gynecological aid after childbirth [Ojibwa: 19].

Antennariaplantaginifolia (L.) Richardson

Asteraceae, Herb

woman’s tobacco (Eng.); antennaire à feuilles de plantain (Fr.)

Used for stomachache and as an expectorant [Ojibwa: 19].

Apocynum androsaemifoliumL.

Apocynaceae, Herb

spreading dogbane (Eng.), apocyn à feuilles d’androsème, herbe à puce, gobe-mouches (Fr.), tōtōsāpowask (Cree); ma’kwona’gĭc odji’bĭk, wesa’wûckwûn, sasa’bikwan (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Tea given to increase lactation in nursing mothers, and cooled tea used as eyewash to treat sore eyes from smoke or snow blindness [Metis: 13; Cree: 95].

Roots:Dried, pulverized and snuffed up the nostrils, or put on hot stones and the fumes are inhaled, against headache. Powdered, moistened with lukewarm water and applied to incisions on the temples to treat headache. Decoction used to treat heart palpitation. Very weak decoction taken internally to treat cold. Cotton moistened with decoction used to stop nostril bleeding, or in severe cases mashed roots are used as a plug. Decoction poured into ear to treat soreness [Ojibwa: 47]. Placed upon live coals and the incense inhaled for throat trouble [Ojibwa: 87].

Stalk and roots: Steeped to make a tea for women to drink to keep the kidneys free during pregnancy [Ojibwa: 87].

Apocynumcannabinum L.

Syn.:A. hypericifoliumAiton

Apocynaceae, Herb

Indian hemp (Eng.); apocyn chanvrin (Fr.)

Medicinal plant [Cree: 42]. Steeped in water and administered to expel worms [Algonquians: 63].

Aquilegiacanadensis L.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

wild columbine (Eng.); ancolie du Canada (Fr.)

Roots:Used for stomach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Aralia hispidaVent.

Araliaceae, Herb

bristly sarsaparilla, dwarf-elder (Eng.); aralie hispide, salsepareille (Fr.); nishitshikâta (Montagnais)

Roots:Used in heart disease [Algonquin: 69].

Root bark: Scraped and dried before being used to prepare a tea for cough [Montagnais: 71].

Aralia nudicaulisL.

Araliaceae, Herb

wild sarsaparilla (Eng.); aralie à tige nue, salsepareille (Fr.); ba-gwa-nan, wabos’odji’bĭk, bebamabi’k (Ojibwa); wāposōcēpīhk, wāposocīpihk, wāpōsogībī (Cree); gajíé (Chipewyan); wapacak (Atikamekw); saçat’sek, sasôgsek (Abenaki)

Tea used as a blood medicine, for fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86], or as a tonic [Abenaki: 67]. Decoction (excluding fruit) used to treat pneumonia in children [Cree: 95].

Leaves:Boiled with stems ofSorbus scopulina andSarracenia purpurea to make a tea taken to relieve chest pain [Chipewyan: 92].

Roots: Used as a diuretic and alterative [Cree: 74]. Dried and crushed to a powder and steeped with sweet flag for cough, steeped and taken in weakness. Boiled in a box with hot stones, and decoction taken internally for stomachache, or merely as a beverage [Algonquians: 63]. Chewed and inserted in an aching ear [Atikamekw: 73]. Pounded in a mortar, boiled in hot water and used for blood purification during pregnancy [Ojibwa: 87]. Used as stimulant [Ojibwa: 88]. Fresh root pounded and applied as a poultice to bring a boil to a head or to cure a carbuncle [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used as a remedy for blood problems, or applied to a sore. Dried and powdered, or fresh root chewed and inserted in nostril to stop nose bleeding. Decoction of stalk ofRibes triste, root ofAralia racemosa and root ofAralia nudicaulis taken for amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47]. Powdered, steeped in water and used to treat cold and influenza [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Powdered and used in many-herb remedy to treat various ailments. Decoction taken internally for teething [Cree: 95]. Poultice used to treat infected wounds [Cree: 13, 93]. Tea for kidney disorders [Algonquin: 69].

Fruiting stalk: Decoction used to stimulate lactation. [Cree: 95].

Rhizomes: Chewed or made into a tea to treat heart pain, chronic chest pain, upset stomach, liver problems [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92] and sore throat [Cree: 13]. Poultice used to treat skin disorders, bee stings, cuts and burns [Cree: 96].

Aralia racemosa L.

Araliaceae, Herb

spikenard, petty morel, life-of-man (Eng.); aralie à grappes, grande salsepareille, anis sauvage (Fr.); či-kadak, o’kadak’ (Ojibwa); skidjinawi’widjp’k’ (Malecite)

Small quantity of this plant with small quantities ofPyrola uliginosa, Baptisia tinctoria, Galium aperine, Streptopus amplexifolius, Acer pennsylvanicum andEupatorium perfoliatum used for gonorrhea, kidney troubles and for blood spitting [Algonquians: 63].Boiled and applied to wounds [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Roots: Infusion used as medicine [Ojibwa: 86]. Used to make poultices for boils [Chippewa: 85]. Tea used to treat tuberculosis, or combined withEuphorbia spp. to treat diabetes [Algonquin: 69]. Mixed withCornus stolonifera and smoked against headache. Steeped and taken in consumption, against gonorrhoea, or mixed with black snakeroot in kidney trouble [Malecite: 65]. Grinded and taken with water for cold, cough and sore throat [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Steeped in water and drunk for cold [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Decoction taken in cough Poultice applied to boils, fractures, sprain or strained muscles [Ojibwa: 47] or to the feet in general dropsy [44]. Decoction of stalk ofRibes triste, root ofAralia racemosa and root ofAralia nudicaulis taken for amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47]. Rhizome/root used as a carminative as well as an expectorant and antiseptic in cough, chest pain and mortification [44].

Fruits:Juice and oil of the seeds poured into the ears to treat deafness [44].

*Arctium lappaL.

Asteraceae, Herb

burdock (Eng.); bardane majeure (Fr.)

Used as blood medicine [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Crushed with buds ofPopulus balsamiferaand applied to sores [Malecite: 65].

Buds: Steeped and used in chancre [Malecite: 65].

*Arctium minus Bernh.

Asteraceae, Herb

burdock (Eng.); bardane mineure (Fr.); wi’sûgibûg’, gi’masan, wi’sûgibûg (Ojibwa); saga’dabohag, oné’bag (Abenaki)

For fever, headache and rheumatism [Abenaki: 67].

Roots: Mashed, heated and used as a poultice for boils and absceses [Algonquians: 63]. Used as a tonic or as part of a medicine for stomachache [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Infusion taken in cough [Ojibwa: 47].

Arctostaphylosalpina (L.) Spreng.

Ericaceae, Shrub

alpine bearberry (Eng.); busserole alpine (Fr.); sah-gah-go-me-nah-gah-shen, bi-gwa-dji-mi-squa-bimag (Ojibwa)

Infusion used as a wash for rheumatism and general illnesses [Ojibwa: 19].

Bark: Decoction used for blood problems [Ojibwa: 19].

Leaves:Smoked to induce intoxication [Ojibwa: 86].

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi(L.) Spreng.

Ericaceae, Shrub

bearberry (Eng.); raisin d’ours (Fr.); kinnikinnick (Algonquian); āchiygasipuk, muskimina, muskominanatik, pithīkōmin, kinnikinick (Cree); dé(lh)ni (Chipewyan);

saga’komĭnagûnj’, me-squah-be-mag (Ojibwa)

Whole plant:Mixed with thatVaccinium myrtilloides in a tea taken to trigger menstruation [Cree: 95].

Stem:Mixed withVaccinum myrtilloides in a decoction taken to prevent miscarriage and speed up recovery after childbirth [Cree: 95].

Stem, leaves and fruits: Decoction drunk for pain in the back and sprained back [44].Leaves and fruits: Tonic [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves: Decoction drunk to treat bladder and kidney problems [Metis: 13]. Dried and pulverized and combined with tobacco or red willow and smoked with a pipe to treat headache [Chippewa: 47] or intoxication [Ojibwa: 86].

Fruits:Mixed with grease and taken against diarrhoea [Cree: 95].

Roots: Tea drunk to treat a persistent cough [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Mixed with herbs and given in excessive menstrual bleeding [Cree: 95].

Bark: Tea with bark and root ofSalix discolour, Pinus strobus,Quercus rubra andPinus banksiana given in fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86].

Arisaema triphyllum(L.) Schott.

Araceae, Herb

Indian turnip, jack-in-the-pulpit (Eng.); petit prêcheur (Fr.); pogdjinsgwewiwazis (Malecite); sag-a-ba (Mi’kmaq); caca’gomîn (Ojibwa)

General medicine [Ojibwa: 86]. Steeped to make a liniment for external use [Mi’kmaq: 44; Algonquians: 63]. Scraped, pounded, moistened and applied as a poultice on abscesses and boils [Malecite: 65].

Root bulbs: Used to treat tuberculosis and as a general stomach medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots: Decoction used to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47, 86].

Aristolochia serpentariaL.

Aristolochiaceae, Herb

virginia snake-root (Eng.); serpentaire de Virginie (Fr.)

Roots: Steeped and used for fits [Algonquians: 63].

Arnica angustifoliaVahl

Syn: Arnicaalpina (L.)Olin

Asteraceae, Herb

alpine arnica (Eng.); arnica à feuilles étroites (Fr.); at’an tsoo (Dene)

Flowers:Petals mixed with grease or oil to make an ointment used to rub aching muscles [Dene: 100].

Above-ground parts:Tea used to treat skin rash [Dene: 100].

*Artemisia absinthiumL.

Asteraceae, Herb

wormwood (Eng.); armoise absinthe (Fr.); muse’odji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Entire top of plant boiled and used as a warm compress to treat sprain of strained muscles [Ojibwa: 47].

Artemisia campestrisL.

Asteraceae, Herb

field sagewort (Eng.), armoise rouge, aurone sauvage (Fr.); denek’áze’eya(ha)naidíé (Chipewyan)

Roots: Chewed and juice swallowed as an emetic or to treat a sore throat [Dene: 13]. Tea drunk against constipation [Ojibwa: 19]. Chewed to cure sore throat or to induce vomiting [Chipewyan: 92].

Artemisiadracunculus L.

Syn.:A.dracunculoidesL.

Asteraceae, Herb

fuzzy weed, dragon wormwood (Eng.); estragon (Fr.); ba’sibûgûk’, o’gima’wûck (Ojibwa)

Leaves and flowers:Dried, steeped in water and taken to treat heart palpitation. Chewed and used as a poultice to stop bleeding from wounds [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves: Chewed to treat heart palpitation. Dried, steeped and taken to treat dysentery [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves and stalks: Decoction taken in amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves, stalks and roots:Decoction taken to ease labor [Ojibwa: 47].

Root: Mixed withDirca palustris in a decoction used as hair ointment. Decoction taken in amenorrhoea. Strong decoction used as a bath for strengthening children or elders [Ojibwa: 47].

Artemisia frigidaWilld.

Asteraceae, Herb

prairie sagebrush, wild sage, pasture sage, fringed sagewort (Eng.); armoise douce (Fr.); mostosowehkuskwa, moostooswehkuskwa, mōstōsowīkask (Cree); bi’jikiwĭn’gûck (Ojibwa)

Leaves:Rubbed on the skin as an insect repellant [Cree, Metis: 13]. Boiled leaves used as a poultice to treat skin problems, including promoting healing of burns with limited scarring [Cree: 13]. Tea drunk to relieve back pain caused by kidney trouble, to rid the body of intestinal worms, as a diuretic to treat bladder infections and other urinary disorders, to relieve the body of toxins, as a tonic to promote healing, as a gargle to treat a sore throat, as a wash for wounds and to clear blurred vision, and as a bath for sore feet, rheumatism, or arthritis [Metis: 13]. Chewed to freshen the breath [Cree: 13]. Decoction used in fever and headache [Cree: 95]. Dried, scrumbled, and placed on a hot stone, and fumes used as a disinfectant [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Mixed withRosa arkansana, Astragalus crassicarpus andPolygola senega in a decoction used to stop bleeding from wounds, as a tonic, stimulant and antidote. Decoction used as an anti-convulsive [Ojibwa: 47].

Artemisialudoviciana Nutt. ssp.ludoviciana

Syn.:A. gnaphalodes Nutt.

Asteraceae, Herb

white mugwort (Eng.); armoise de Louisiane (Fr.); nokwe’jigûn (Ojibwa)

Flowers:Dried andplaced on coals, fumes act as an antidote for “bad medicine” [Ojibwa: 47].

Artemisia norvegicassp. saxatilis(Besser) H.M. Hall & ClementsSyn: A.arctica Less. ssp.arctica

Asteraceae, Herb

mountain sagewort, arctic wormwood (Eng.); armoise saxatile (Fr.)

Roots:Boiled and drunk to treat backpain [Dene: 98].

Artemisiasp.

Asteraceae, Herb

Decoction used for stomach troubles, cold, worms, and other ailments [44].

Artemisiatilesii Ledeb.

Syn.:A.tilesii Ledeb. ssp.elatior (Torr. & A. Gray) Hultén

Asteraceae, Herb

Tilesius wormwood (Eng.); armoise de Tilesius (Fr.); gyùu tsanh (Dene)

Tea used for cold and sore throat. Steam inhaled to clear nasal passages [Dene: 99]. Used to treat congested chest and to clear a stuffy head or nose [Dene: 100].

Flowers:Boiled and drunk to treat cough and liver ailments [Dene: 98].

Asarum canadense L.

Aristolochiaceae, Herb

wild ginger (Eng.); asaret du Canada, gingembre sauvage (Fr.); dagmigwe-al (Malecite); agabwen, name’pîn (Ojibwa); alna’badipwa’beule (Abenaki)

Roots: Used as general medicine [Ojibwa: 85, 87]. Remedies for bruises and contusions [Algonquians: 63]. Tea drunk for fever and convulsions in infants [Algonquin: 69]. Steeped and given in cramps [Malecite: 65]. Used as cough medicine [Abenaki: 67]. Mixed withPlantago major to make a poultice used to treat inflamed skin. Dried, mashed and applied as a poultice on fractures [Ojibwa: 47].

Rhizomes and roots: Used as a carminative [Ojibwa: 88] or as a remedy for stomach troubles [44].

Asclepias syriaca L.

Asclepiadaceae, Herb

milkweed (Eng.); asclépiade commune, petits cochons (Fr.); inĭ’nĭwûnj, cabo’sîkûn (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used as a “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used in confinement [Ojibwa: 47].

Asclepias tuberosaL.

Asclepiadaceae, Herb

butterfly milkweed, pleurisy root (Eng.) asclépiade tubéreuse (Fr.)

Roots: Used as a diaphoretic and cold medicine [Penobscot: 44]. Eaten raw for pulmonary troubles, chewed and put on wounds or pulverized on wounds, and also applied as a remedy for old obstinate sores [44].

Aspidium cristatum(L.) Sw.

Polypodiaceae, Herb

shield fern (Eng.); dryoptère à crêtes (Fr.); ana’ganûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea taken in stomach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Astragalusamericanus (Hook.) M.E. Jones

Fabaceae, Herb

American milk-vetch, rattle-pod (Eng.); astragale d’Amérique (Fr.); kāsīsīkwānīpathisihk (Cree)

Roots: Chewed and juice swallowed to treat stomachache, cramps or stomach flu [Cree: 95].

Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt.

Fabaceae, Herb

ground plum (Eng.); astragale graines-de-boeuf (Fr.); bi’jikiwi’bûgesan (Ojibwa)

Roots: Mixed withArtemisia frigida, Rosa arkansanaandPolygola senega in a decoction applied to wounds to stop bleeding. Decoction taken for convulsions, and as a stimulant [Ojibwa: 47].

Athyriumfilix-femina (L.) Roth

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

common ladyfern (Eng.); athyrium fougère-femelle (Fr.); a’sawan,ana’ganûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Mixed withUrtica gracilis in a decoction used to treat stoppage of urine [Ojibwa: 47]. Dried, made into a powder and used to heal sores. Tea used to ease milk flow in patients with caked breast [Ojibwa: 87].

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br.

Fabaceae, Herb

black root, wild indigo (Eng.); baptisie des teinturiers (Fr.); chepatakwawutupe (Cree)

Medicinal plant [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Mixed withPyrola uliginosa, Galium aperine, Aralia racemosa, Streptopus amplexifolius,Acer pennsylvanicum, andEupatorium perfoliatum in small quantities, steeped and drunk in gonorrhea, kidney problems, and blood spitting [Algonquians: 63].

Rhizomes:Powder use as an emetic, cathartic, and on ulcers and syphilitic sores [Cree: 74].

*Berberis vulgarisL.

Berberidaceae, Shrub

barberry (Eng.); berbéris vulgaire, épine-vinette (Fr.)

Roots or bark: Mashed and applied to ulcerated gums and sore throat [Algonquians: 63].

Betulaalleghaniensis Britton

Syn.: B. luteaMichx. f.

Betulaceae, Tree

yellow birch (Eng.); bouleau jaune, merisier (Fr.); wilen (Innu)

Bark: Infusion taken for dysentery [Algonquin: 75]. Used in rheumatism, also chewed or steeped and used against diarrhoea, indigestion and stomach cramps [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used to make plasters [Innu: 72].

Betulaglandulosa Michx.

Betulaceae, Shrub

glandular birch, dwarf birch (Eng.); bouleau glanduleux (Fr.); huu t’an (Dene); ínt’ánbandhaze (Chipewyan)

Whole plant:Tea taken to treat stomach problems [Dene: 100].

Inner bark: Used to treat stomach problems [Dene: 100].

Leaves: Used to treat insect bites [Dene: 100].

Twigs: Chewed and applied to deep cuts [Chipewyan: 92].

Betula lentaL.

Betulaceae, Tree

black birch (Eng.), bouleau flexible, merisier rouge (Fr.); winsik, kade-wigwas

Medicinal plant [Algonquin: 69].

Bark: Mixed with beech (Fagus grandifolia) and red-osier dogwood (Cornusstolonifera) as a remedy for pulmonary trouble. Decoction used against pneumonia and diarrhoea [Chippewa: 85].

Sap: Drunk in tiredness [55].

Betula nanaL.

Betulaceae, Shrub

bog birch, dwarf birch, glandular birch (Eng.); boleau nain, bouleau de savane (Fr.)

Twigs: Fresh twigs chewed and put on a deepcut to stop bleeding [Dene: 13].

Stem and leaves: Boiled to make a weight loss tea [Dene: 13].

Betulanana L. ssp.exilis (Sukaczev) Hultén

Syn.:B. exilis Sukaczev

Betulaceae, Shrub

dwafr birch (Eng.); bouleau grêle (Fr.); wi’umis’sik (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Mixed withAcer saccharinum in a decoction taken as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 84].

Betulaneoalaskana Sarg.

Betulaceae, Shrub

Alaska paper birch, white birch (Eng.); bouleau d’Alaska (Fr.); k’i (Chipewyan)

Leaves:Chewed and plastered on wasp stings to extract the poison [Chipewyan: 92].

Betulanigra L.

Betulaceae, Tree

black birch (Eng.); bouleau noir (Fr.)

Bark: Decoction taken in stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Betula papyriferaMarsh.

Betulaceae, Tree

paper birch, white birch (Eng.); bouleau à papier, bouleau blanc (Fr.); wuskwi-atik, wāskwayahtik, wasgwah, waskwaha, wāskwāh, waskway, owkimawa(h)tik (Cree); k’i (Chipewyan); maskwe’nos (Malecite); wi’gwasa’tĭg (Ojibway); uâshkuai (Montagnais); aat’oo, k’ i (Dene)

Sapling used to reduce swelling caused by a bee sting [Dene: 101].

Leaves:Chewed and plastered on wasp stings to extract the poison [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Used to treat insect bites [Dene: 100].

Stem or branch:Decoction taken in teething sickness [Cree: 95]. Dried twigs used to clean out a boil [Dene: 101]. Boiled and taken as a tea to treat stomach ailments [Dene: 99].

Buds: Mixed with lard and applied as an ointment [Cree: 93].

Wood: Dried, finely powdered rotten wood used as baby powder [Cree: 94, 95; Metis: 13].Decoction used in back pain or to induce lactation [Cree: 95]. Boiled and water used as a topical cleanser [Cree: 93].

Wood and inner bark: Decoction used to treat “women’s troubles” [Cree: 95].

Inner bark: Used to ease teething pain [Cree, Metis: 13]. Grated and eaten with balsam fir as a beneficial to diet [Montagnais: 60]. Steam from tea inhaled to treat asthma [Cree: 13], drunk for “women’s troubles” [Metis: 13], or used as a gargle for tonsillitis, sore throat, and cold [Cree, Metis: 13]. Boiled and used as a poultice to treat burns and wounds [Cree, Metis: 13]. Scraping from the outside of the innermost bark layer put in water and applied to infected cuts [Malecite: 65]. Dried, ground and added to an ointment made from pitch and grease to treat persistent scabs and rashes, and boiled to make a wash to treat skin rash and other skin sores [Cree: 95]. Tea used to treat stomach problems [Dene: 100]. Boiled and tea smeared on burns, or drunk to cure menstrual cramps, cough and cold, back pain. Ashes smeared on abscesses [Dene: 101].

Bark: Mixed with another plant in a decoction used by women who cannot conceive a child. Powdery outer layer sprinkled on a sprained ankle before bandaging it [Cree: 13]. Used as a cast for a broken arm or leg, a sprained ankle, or swollen limbs [Cree: 13; Dene: 101]. Steamed and peeled to produce thin sheets suitable for bandages [Metis: 13; Cree: 95]. Dried and used as baby powder [Ojibway: 89]. Tea used for diarrhoea [Montagnais: 71]. White powder on the bark (lichens) used for diaper rash and other skin rashes [Algonquin: 69]. Compress used to treat abscesses, boiled and used against impetigo [Cree: 80].

Roots: Mixed with other plants in a decoction drunk to relieve menstrual cramps, a different mix is used as a heart medicine [Dene: 13]. Tea used to treat snow blindness [Dene: 99].

Sap:Used as a cough medicine, warmed and taken as a tea for general health [Dene: 17]. Tea drunk for cough and breathing problems [Dene: 101].

*Betulapubescens Ehrh.Syn.:B. alba L.

Betulaceae, Tree

downy birch (Eng.); bouleau pubescent (Fr.); wuskwi (Cree); wîgwas (Ojibwa)

Wood: White rotten wood boiled in a decoction ofLedum latifolium, dried, powdered and used in dermatological problems [Cree: 42].

Buds: Used in gonorrhoea [Cree: 74].

Bark: Mixed withTsuga canadensis and pine bark in an infusion used in treatment of consumption and other lung troubles [Cree: 74]. Root bark and maple sugar cooked together to make a soothing syrup to alleviate stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87].

Betula pumilaL. var.glandulifera Regel.

Syn:B. glandulifera (Regel) Butler

Betulaceae, Tree

low birch (Eng.); bouleau glandulifère (Fr.); bîne’mîcins (Ojibwa); ínt’ánbandhaze (Chipewyan)

Cones: Put on coals and used as an incense to cure catarrh. Tea drunk during menstruation and for strengthening during childbirth [Ojibwa: 87].

Twigs: Chewed and put on a deep cut [Chipewyan: 92].

Boschniakiarossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) Fedtsch.

Orobanchaceae, Herb

northern groundcone (Eng.); boschniakie de Russie (Fr.); du’iinahshèe (Dene)

Roots: Boiled and drunk to cure stomach problems [Dene: 98]. White central part of roots or new plants referred to as “potatoes” boiled and eaten to increase appetite or relieve stomach ache [Dene: 99] or chewed as a general medicine.

Botrychium virginianum(L.) Sw.

Ophioglossaceae, Herb

rattlesnake fern, Virginia grape fern (Eng.); botryche de Virginie (Fr.); ozaga’tigŭm, gîckênsîne’namûkûk (Ojibwa)

Used for lung trouble and consumption [Ojibwa: 87], and chorea [Abenaki: 67].

Roots: Bruised and applied to cuts [Ojibwa: 44, 84]. Poultice applied to snake bite [Ojibwa: 47].

Brassicasp.

Brassicaceae, Herb

mustard (Eng.)

Used in rheumatism [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Calla palustris L.

Araceae, Herb

water arum (Eng.); calla des marais (Fr.); ōcicākokātask (Cree); ûshteshu (Montagnais)

Compress applied to burns [Montagnais: 71].

Rhizomes: Used topically to treat sore legs [Dene: 13]. Chewed to treat sore mouth, powder put on sores [Dene: 98].

Stem: Used to treat sore legs [Cree: 95].

Caltha palustrisL.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

marsh marigold (Eng.); populage des marais (Fr.); o’git’bûg, mingde-beguk (Ojibwa)

Mixed with sugar maple in a decoction used as a cough syrup [Ojibwa: 88].

Roots:Boiled and mashed to make a poultice for stubborn sores [Ojibwa: 85]. Boiled, strained, cooled and taken to treat colds [Ojibwa: 47]. Mashed and applied externally to treat scrofula. Mixed withSanicula canadensis in a decoction taken in confinement [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves and stalks: Mixed with leaves and stalks ofRibessp. and taken to treat stoppage of urine [Ojibwa: 47].

Calvatia craniiformisSchw.

Lycoperdaceae, Fungi

giant puffball (Eng.); vesse-de-loup crâniforme (Fr.); oskwe’tûk (Ojibwa)

Spores inhaled to stop nose bleeding [Ojibwa: 47, 87].

Campanula rotundifoliaL.

Campanulaceae, Herb

harebell, bluebell (Eng.); campanule à feuilles rondes (Fr.); kuskwasonapiskos, sewayonakunis, mitīhīmaskīhkīh (Cree); degaimaribet’ánchayé (Chipewyan); mekminswan, zi’gĭnĭ’ce, adota’gons (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used to treat influenza, fever, lung trouble, or heart trouble [Dene, Metis: 13; ; Chipewyan: 92]. Infusion used as ear drops to treat ear soreness [Ojibwa: 47], and in a compound medicine for lung troubles [Ojibwa: 87]. Chewed for heart ailments [Cree: 95].

*Capsellabursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Brassicaceae, Herb

shepherd’s purse (Eng.); capselle bourse-à-pasteur (Fr.); ĭ’ckode’wadji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Decoction used in dysentery [Ojibwa: 47].

Cardaminediphylla (Michx.) Alph. WoodSyn.: Dentaria diphyllaMichx.

Brassicaceae, Herb

toothwort, pepper-root (Eng.); dentaire à deux feuilles, snicroûte, carcajou (Fr.); ka’djiwuk (Malecite)

Roots: Tea given for fever in children. Mixed with sweetflag in a tea used for heart disease [Algonquin: 69]. Chewed (green or dried) for hoarseness or to clear throat. Steeped and given as a tonic [Malecite: 65].

Carexaquatilis Wahlenb.

Cyperaceae, Herb

sedge (Eng.); carex aquatique (Fr.); tlh’oghtsëné (Chipewyan)

Roots: Used to induce menstruation [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92] or as part of a compound tea for intestinal problems [Dene: 13].

*Carum carviL.

Apiaceae, Herb

caraway (Eng.); carvi commun, anis, (Fr.); sīcisis, iskotawutupe (Cree)

Analgesic [Abenaki: 67]. Boiled with ‘Petasites sagittatus to treat chickenpox [Dene: 17].

Rhizomes and seeds: Used as a corrective and adjuvant, and to relieve colic [Cree: 74].

Seeds: Tea given to children to treat cough [Cree: 13].

Caryacordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch

Juglandaceae, Tree

bitternut hickory (Eng.); caryer cordiforme, noyer amer (Fr.)

Oil used in rheumatism [91].

Caryalaciniosa (Michx. f.) G. Don

Juglandaceae, Tree

shellbark hickory (Eng.); caryer lacinié (Fr.)

Used for arthritis [91].

Caryaovata (Mill.) K. Koch

Syn:Hicoriaalba Britton

Juglandaceae, Tree

shagbark hickory (Eng.); caryer ovale, noyer tendre (Fr.)

Used for arthritis [91].

Shoots: Fresh shoots placed on hot stones and fumes inhaled in convulsions [Ojibwa: 47].

Castillejacoccinea (L.) Spreng.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

scarlet paintbrush, Indian paintbrush (Eng.); castilléjie écarlate (Fr.); wĭnabojo’noko’mĭs wi’nĭzĭsûn’ (Ojibwa)

Used in “women diseases” [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers: Decoction used in rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Castilleja miniataDougl. Ex Hook.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

great red paintbrush, Indian paintbrush, painted-cup (Eng.); castilléjie rougeâtre (Fr.)

Flowers: Dried heads added to wild chamomile flowers to make a tea to cure headaches and relax nerves [Metis: 13].

Caulophyllumthalictroides (L.) Michx.

Berberidaceae, Herb

blue cohosh (Eng.); caulophylle faux-pigamon (Fr.); iskwawutupe (Cree); be’cigodji’bigûk, oci’gîmîc (Ojibwa)

Used in cramps [Ojibwa: 47].

Rhizomes:Powdered and used in uterine troubles, especially dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia and post partum hemorrhage [Cree: 74]. Infusion given to render delivery rapid and painless. Used for rheumatism, dropsy, uterine inflammation, and colic [44].

Roots: Infusion used in amenorrhea [Cree: 74] or for painful menstruation [Ojibwa: 87]. Tea used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used in lung troubles. Mixed withRudbeckia laciniata in a decoction taken in indigestion. Mixed withSanguinaria canadensis in a decoction taken to treat stomach cramps. Scraped finely, tied in a cloth, squeezed in warm water taken as an emetic [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers:Infusion used for rheumatism and sciatica [Cree: 74].

Ceanothus americanusL.

Rhamnaceae, Shrub

New Jersey tea (Eng.); céanothus d’Amérique (Fr.); kadegimnedu, konjibik (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and infusion drunk to cure constipation, bloating and shortness of breath. Mixed with roots or branches of wild grape, roots ofHepatica, bark of beech, and inner bark of sugar maple, black birch and red-osier dogwood, all steeped together to make a remedy for pulmonary troubles [Ojibwa: 85].

Ceanothusherbaceus Raf.

Syn.:C. ovatus auct. non Desf.

Rhamnaceae, Shrub

New Jersey tea (Eng.); céanothus à feuilles ovées (Fr.); odiga’dimanido’ (Ojibwa)

Used in lung troubles and as an emetic [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Decoction taken in cough [Ojibwa: 47].

Celastrus scandens L.

Celastraceae, Vine

bitter-sweet (Eng.); célastre grimpant, bourreau des arbres (Fr.); bima’kwûd, manîdobima’kwit (Ojibwa)

Medicinal plant [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Cooked in animal fat, strained, and used as an ointment for cancer or obstinate sore [Chippewa: 85; Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used to treat stoppage of urine [Chippewa: 47], or as a physic or diuretic.

Fruits:Used for sotmach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Stalk: Decoction used in skin eruptions [Ojibwa: 87].

Cetrariaislandica (L.) Ach.

Parmeliaceae, Lichens

lichen (Eng.); lichen d’Islande (Fr.)

Boiled and taken to treat tuberculosis [Dene: 98].

Chamaecyparisthyoides (L.) BSP

Syn.: Cupressus thyoidesL.

Cupressaceae, Tree

white cedar (Eng.); cèdre blanc de l’Atlantique (Fr.); gī’zhik (Ojibwa)

Leaves:Cushed and applied to relieve headache, boiled and inhaled to cure backache [Ojibwa: 84].

Chamaedaphne calyculata(L.) Moench

Syn.:Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don.

Ericaceae, Shrub

leatherleaf (Eng.); faux bleuet, cassandre caliculé (Fr.); matshikîsha (Montagnais)

Bark or twigs: Steeped into water and used as a compress or tea for headache [Montagnais: 71].

Chamerionangustifolium (L.) Holub ssp.angustifolium

Syn.: Epilobium angustifoliumL.

Onagraceae, Herb

fireweed, willow herb (Eng.); épilobe à feuilles étroites, bouquets rouges (Fr.); hapaskwa, askapask, athkāpask, ākāpuskwah, liy(h)kāpusk (Cree); oja’cidji’bĭk (Ojibwa); kapamastak (Atikamekw); tlitl’echi (Dene); góndhi’elé (Chipewyan)

Applied to treat cuts [Algonquin: 75] or used in cough [Abenaki: 67].Young tops eaten to “strengthen the blood” [Metis: 13]. Tea used to relieve a sore stomach [Dene: 101].

Whole plant: Tea taken to treat intestinal worms [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Boiled and the liquid rubbed on the skin to ease rashes [Dene: 99].

Leaves: Chewed and applied as a plaster on bruises [Metis: 13; Cree: 95]. Poultice from fresh or dried leaves applied to bruises [Chippewa: 47], burns, bee stings, aches and swelling caused by arthritis [Dene: 99]. Chewed and applied to bee stings and bites [Dene: 100].

Roots: Roasted in ashes, mashed, and applied to boils [Algonquin: 68]. Peeled, chewed or pounded, and applied as a poultice on boils, carbuncle, abscesses or open wounds to prevent infection [Metis: 13; Cree: 95; Ojibwa: 87]. Boiled and used for skin problems [Atikamekw: 73]. Herbal water taken to induce menses [Cree: 93].

Chamerionlatifolium (L.) HolubSyn.:Epilobiumlatifolium L.

Onagraceae, Herb

river beauty, dwarf fireweed (Eng.); épilobe à feuilles larges (Fr.); tlitl’echi (Dene)

Tea used to relieve a sore stomach [Dene: 101].

Leaves: Chewed and applied to bee stings and bites [Dene: 100].

Chelone glabraL.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

white turtle head (Eng.); tête de tortue, galane glâbre (Fr.); athozis wiwsnia’ginol (Malecite)

Steeped and given to prevent pregnancy [Malecite: 65].

Roots: Used with cedar bark to prepare a medicinal tea [Algonquin: 69].

*Chenopodium albumL.

Chenopodiaceae, Herb

lamb’s quarters (Eng.); chénopode blanc, chou gras (Fr.); wīthiniwpakwātik (Cree)

Leaves: Dipped in maple or birch sap and used to treat cold [55]. Decoction taken or applied to treat painful limbs [Cree: 95].

*Chenopodium ambrosioidesL.

Chenopodiaceae, Herb

American wormseed (Eng.); chénopode fausse-ambroisie (Fr.)

Whole plant:Infusion taken to relieve painful menstruation [44].

Chimaphilaumbellata (L.) W. Bartram

Pyrolaceae, Herb

prince’s pine, pipsissewa (Eng.); chimaphile à ombelles, herbe à peigne (Fr.); amiskwāthōwipak (Cree); k’agegiga’kil (Malecite); yaskopteg, ga’gîge’bûg (Ojibwa); jabak (Abenaki)

Mixed with other species to make a remedy for gonorrhoea and ulcers. Steeped and applied to blisters [Ojibwa: 85]. Applied to open sores and ingested as a tonic and diuretic [44]. Used as an ingredient in a decoction to treat backache or stabbing pain in the chest. Tea or decoction used in blood coughing [Cree: 95]. Steeped with common Juniper and taken in consumption. Steeped and taken to purify blood [Malecite: 65]. Used as a medicine for head colds [Abenaki: 67]. Used in tuberculosis and as a general stomach medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62; Ojibwa: 87]. Boiled and drunk to induce sweating [Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Decoction used to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47]. Steeped withConioselium chinense, Tsuga canadensis, and Rumex crispus and given in bladder problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Cicutadouglasii (DC.) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Apiaceae, Herb

Douglas’ water-hemlock, western water-hemlock (Eng.); cicutaire pourpre (Fr.)

Roots:Smoked to cure headache [Dene: 98].

Cicuta maculataL.

Apiaceae, Herb

waterhemlock (Eng.); cicutaire maculée, carotte à Moreau (Fr.); maciskatask (Cree); apagwasî’gons (Ojibwa)

Roots: Medicinal [Ojibwa: 87]. Dried and powdered to make a liniment applied externally [Cree: 95].

*Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Asteraceae, Herb

Canada thistle (Eng.); chardon des champs (Fr.); kaminakuse, kaweminukuse (Cree); masa’nûck (Ojibwa); kon’hizak (Abenaki)

Boiled for consumption [Algonquians: 63]. Tonic, diuretic and astringent [Chippewa: 47]. Used as a bowel tonic [Ojibwa: 87] or as a vermifuge for children [Abenaki: 67]. Used to reduce itching, particularly that caused byRhus radicans (poison ivy) [Algonquin: 68].

Roots: Fleshy white root dried, powdered, and mixed with warm animal grease as a poultice to be applied to aching joints [Metis: 13].

Cirsiumdiscolor (Muhl. ex Willd.)Spreng.

Asteraceae, Herb

common thistle (Eng.); chardon discolore (Fr.); kee-poo-cus-i-cun (Cree)

Dried, powdered and mixed with water to make a paste applied to wounds [Cree: 76].

Cirsiumsp.

Asteraceae, Herb

thistle (Eng.); chardon (Fr.); ma’zana’tĭg (Ojibwa)

Roots:Mixed withPopulus balsamifera in a decoction taken internally to treat “female weakness” and back pain. Steeped withTaraxacum officinale and taken in confinement [Ojibwa: 47].

*Cirsiumvulgare (Savi) Ten.

Syn.:C. lanceolatum (L.) Hill

Asteraceae, Herb

common thistle (Eng.); chardon vulgaire, piqueux (Fr.); ji’masa’nûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used for alleviating stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87].

Cladinastellaris (Opiz) Brodo

Syn.:C. alpestris (L.)Rabenh.;Cladoniastellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda

Cladoniaceae, Lichen

reindeer lichen (Eng.); lichen à caribou, mousse à caribou (Fr.); wāpiskastaskamihk, atikōmīciwin (Cree)

Powdered and mixed with water to expel intestinal worms [Cree: 95].

Cladinarangiferina (L.) Nyl.

Cladoniaceae, Lichen

greygreen reindeer lichen (Eng.); lichen à caribou, mousse à caribou (Fr.); whapskumuk, epshatuk (Cree)

Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Clintoniaborealis (Aiton) Raf.

Liliaceae, Herb

corn-lily, bluebead lily (Eng.); clintonie boréale (Fr.); gînose’wîbûg (Ojibwa); sestedomanuk, skaskataminask (Atikamekw) tshîtshue atâpukuat (Montagnais)

Pounded and applied to face and hands as a mosquito repellent [Atikamekw: 73]. Used to activate labour for childbirth [Ojibway: 73].

Leaves: Poultice used in infections and open wounds [Algonquin: 69; Atikamekw: 73]. Boiled before being applied to swelling and hemorroids [Montagnais: 71]. Applied to burns. Decoction applied to treat scrofula [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots:Tea used to help parturition. Put on a dog bite to prevent infection [Ojibwa: 87].

Clintoniauniflora (Menzies ex Schult. & Schult. f.) Kunth

Syn.:Smilacinaborealis (Aiton) Raf.

Liliaceae, Herb

single-flowered clintonia, Queens cup,bride’s bonnet (Eng.); clintonie uniflore (Fr.)

Roots: Juice drunk in gravel [Algonquians: 63].

Comarumpalustre L.

Syn.:Potentillapalustris (L.) Scop.

Rosaceae, Herb

marsh five-finger (Eng.); potentille palustre (Fr.); beba’akwûndek, bĭne’bûg (Ojibwa)

Plant used to cure stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Decoction used to treat dysentery [Ojibwa: 47].

Comptoniaperegrina (L.) J.M. Coult.

Syn.: Myrica asplenifolia L.

Myricaceae, Shrub

sweet fern, ant wood (Eng.); comptonie voyageuse (Fr.); kba’agne-mins (Chippewa ); eninigsomo’zil (Malecite); kba’agne-minš, gibaime’nûna’gwûs (Ojibwa)

Used for catarrh. Steeped with yarrow and applied to sprain swelling [Malecite: 65]. Used to treat eczema, sores, cancer and poison ivy rash [Mi’kmaq: 61].

Leaves: Steeped and rubbed on the skin to cure poison ivy rash [Mi’kmaq: 60; Algonquians: 63]. Steeped with leaves of catnip (Nepeta calaria) to make an infusion to be used as a febrifuge [Chippewa: 85]. Tea used to make to cure the flux and stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87]. Steeped and tea taken as a general tonic. Poultice used for rheumatism and external sores [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Crushed and the perfume inhaled or drunk as a tea for headache [Algonquin: 69].

Conioselinumchinense (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Apiaceae, Herb

Chinese hemlockparsley (Eng.); coniosélinum de Genesee (Fr.)

Roots: Steeped withTsuga canadensis,Chimaphila umbellata andRumex crispus and given in bladder problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Coptistrifolia (L.) Salisb.

Syn.:C. groenlandica (Oeder) Fernald

Ranunculaceae, Herb

golden thread (Eng.); coptide du Groenland, savoyane (Fr.); wizauke’skil (Malecite); wi’ca’uckomuk, uîshakâshkamuku (Montagnais/Innu); wijô’wapap’kôs (Abenaki); osawskamikwapi (Atikamekw); wesa wa’nikwe’ak , oza’widji’bĭg (Ojibwa)

Steeped, used to saturate a rag to be placed in sore mouth [Mi’kmaq: 61; Malecite: 65]. Used to treat frostbite or to stimulate appetite [Algonquin: 68].

Stem: Tea used as a wash for sore eyes, lips and interior of mouth [Montaganais: 70]. Chewed to allay canker or sores on the gums or in the mouth. Used to ease mouths irritated by excessive tobacco smoking [Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Used for sore eyes or steeped to make a stomach medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Tea used for heart disease, toothache, diarrhoea and as an eyewash [Algonquin: 69; Atikamekw: 73]. Used for cough [Abenaki: 67; Atikamekw: 73]. Decoction used to soothe teething pain and heal gums, and as a mouth wash to treat sore mouth [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used for throat pain, cough and mouth infection [Montagnais: 71].

Cornus alternifoliaL. f.

Cornaceae, Tree

dogwood (Eng.); cornouiller à feuilles alternes (Fr.); muns-mins, moso’mîc, muj’omĭj’ (Ojibwa)

Bark: Used as an eye bath [Chippewa: 85]. Decoction used as an emetic, in cough and fever [44].

Inner bark: Used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Alone or mixed with Cornus sericea andAlnus incana in a decoction used as a wash or compress to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47].

Cornus canadensis L.

Cornaceae, Shrub

bunch berry, dogwood, dwarf cornel, pigeonberry (Eng.); cornouiller du Canada, quatre-temps, rougets (Fr.); ode’imînîdji’bîk (Ojibwa); patkéna’houk (Abenaki); saguminan (Atikamekw); shâshâkuminânakashî (Montagnais); nekutsahemen (Innu)

Medicinal plant [Innu: 72].Used to heal sores and cancers [Mi’kmaq: 61]. Steeped and used for paralysis [Algonquians: 63]. Boiled withGaultheria procumbens and used for cold or mixed withTaxus canadensis twigs and used against menstrual disorders [Atikamekw: 73]. Decoction used for “stich in the side” [Abenaki: 67]. Steeped and the liquid drunk in kidney problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Whole plant: Boiled and liquid drunk for rheumatism and other types of pain [Montagnais: 71].

Leaves: Used to prepare cathartic tea [Algonquin: 69].

Roots, leaves and fruits: Steeped and given against fits [Malecite: 65].

Roots: Tea used to cure colics [Ojibwa: 87].

Cornus floridaL.

Cornaceae, Tree

flowering dogwood (Eng.); cornouiller fleuri (Fr.); nemwatik (Chippewa)

Used for fever and cold [44].

Inner bark: Mixed with other plants (Sanguinaria, Asarumand Ostrya) to make a cough remedy [Chippewa: 85].

Cornusfoemina Mill.

Syn.:C.stricta Lam.

Cornaceae, Shrub

stiff dogwood (Eng.)

Bark: Dried and mixed with tobacco for smoking [Algonquians: 63].

Cornusracemosa Lam.

Syn.:C.paniculata L’Hér.

Cornaceae, Shrub

panicled dogwood (Eng.); cornouiller à grappes (Fr.); meskwabi’mîc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Tea used for flux. Inserted into the anus as a treatment for piles [Ojibwa: 87].

Cornus sericeaL.

Syn.:C.stoloniferaMichx

Cornaceae, Shrub

red-osier dogwood, red willow (Eng.); cornouiller stolonifère, hart rouge (Fr.); mehkwa pemakwa, mikwapamuk, mīhkwa pēmakwa, mīkōbīmāka, mikwanbimaka, mikwapimakwah, mithkwāpīmak, miskwāpīmak, mi(h)kwapiymak, mikwa piskaw, nipsiy wasaskwetow, pīmīhkwāhtik, mīhkwanīpisīya, mikobimuk (Cree); k’áik’ozé (Chipewyan); meskwabi-mins, mĭs’kwabi’mĭc (Ojibwa); nespipam’k’ (Malecite); mamkawa’kousek (Abenaki); mîkuâpemuku (Montagnais)

Medicinal plant [Chippewa: 86]. Chewed and placed on fresh cuts to stop bleeding [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Steeped and used for diarrhoea or to make a wash to cure eruptions caused by poison ivy or by other poisons [Chippewa: 85]. Chewed and applied to sore eyes. Steeped and used as a gargle in sore throat. Used in catarrh [Malecite: 65].

Bark:Decoction fromyoung bark used as an emetic in cold, cough and fever [Cree: 42]. Peeled, mixed with another plant, boiled, and a cloth soaked in the solution is applied to sore eyes [Cree: 13]. Applied to wounds to stop bleeding or drunk as a tea for cold [Algonquin: 69]. Smoked [Ojibwa: 86]. Infusion used to treat eye problems [Abenaki: 67]. Boiled and used in a mixture with barks of poplar, birch and spruce to treat cough and cold [Dene: 17]. Herbal water taken for diarrhoea and to induce vomiting [Cree: 93].

Stems:Tea taken for chest trouble and to cure stoppage of urine [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Roots: Tea drunk to treat dizziness [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92] or stomach problems [Cree: 96]. Mixed with other herbs in a decoction given to children to stop diarrhoea [Cree: 13]. Mixed withCornus alternifoliaandAlnus incana in a decoction used as a wash or compress to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47]. Scraped and mixed withAralia racemosa and smoked to treat headache [Malecite: 65]. Used to treat aching muscles and soreness [Dene: 17].

Fruits: Boiled and taken to treat tuberculosis [Dene: 98].

Fruits or pith: Used to make a wash to treat snow blindness [Cree: 95].

Pith: Used in cataracts [Cree: 95].

Bark and twigs: Decoction used for skin or eye problems [Montagnais: 71].

Leaves:Crushed and used to treat burns, bee stings and insect bites [Dene: 100].

Cornussp.

Cornaceae, Shrub

willow, dogwood (Eng.); cornouiller (Fr.)

Bark: Minced, boiled and applied as a poultice in sprains [Algonquin: 75].

Corydalis aurea Willd. Fumariaceae, Herb

golden corydalis (Eng.); corydale dorée (Fr.); tîpotîe’kwason (Ojibwa)

Roots:Placed on coals and smoke inhaled to clear the head and as a tonic [Ojibwa: 87].

Corylus americanaWalt.

Betulaceae, Shrub

American hazelnut (Eng.); noisetier d’Amérique (Fr.); mûkwobaga’nak (Ojibwa)

Bark: Boiled and used as a poultice to heal cuts [Ojibwa: 87].

Stalk: Burned and charcoal combined with bear gall pricked into the temples with needles to treat convulsions [Ojibwa: 47].

Corylus cornuta Marsh.

Syn : C. rostrataAit.

Betulaceae, Tree

beaked hazelnut (Eng.); noisetier à long bec (Fr.); bagan’, baga’nak (Ojibwa); pakanatuk (Atikamekw)

Hairs of the husk used to expel worms [Ojibwa: 87].

Branches and leaves: Tea used in heart trouble and intestinal disorders [Atikamekw: 73; Algonquin: 69].

Crataegussp.

Rosaceae, Tree

hawthorn (Eng.); aubépine (Fr.); minesgan-wins, mînesaga’wûnj (Chippewa)

Bark: Medicinal [Chippewa: 85, 87].

Roots: Medicinal [Chippewa: 85, 87]. Mixed with other plants in a decoction given to treat “female weakness” and back pain [Ojibwa: 47].

*Cucurbitamaxima Duchesne

Cucurbitaceae, Vine

squash (Eng.); courge (Fr.); ogwîssi’maun o’wasokwûne’k (Ojibwa)

Seeds: Tea drunk as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Cynoglossumvirginianum L. var.boreale (Fernald) Cooperr.

Syn.:C. boreale Fernald

Boraginaceae, Herb

hound’s tongue (Eng.); cynoglosse boréal (Fr.); masa’n (Ojibwa)

Smoked to cure headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Cypripedium acaule Aiton

Orchidaceae, Herb

lady’slipper, moccasin flower, nerve root (Eng.); cypripède acaule, sabot de la vierge (Fr.); kamidjetotapi (Atikamekw); ago’biso’wĭn (Ojibwa)

Roots:Steeped and used for nervousness [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Used in venereal disease and menstrual disorders [Algonquin: 69]. Boiled and used against stomachache, urinary tract disorders and kidney problems for children [Atikamekw: 73]. Powdered, moistened and used to treat toothache. Steeped and taken in indigestion. Poultice applied to skin inflammation [Chippewa: 47].

Flowers: Powdered, moistened and used to treat toothache [Chippewa: 88].

Cypripediumparviflorum Salisb.

Orchidaceae, Herb

ladyslipper (Eng.); cypripède jaune (Fr.); ma’kasîn (Ojibwa)

Rhizomes: Used as a sedative, antispasmodic or depressant [Cree: 74].

Roots: Used for “female troubles” [Ojibwa: 87].

Cypripediumreginae Walter

Orchidaceae, Herb

showy lady’s slipper (Eng.); cypripède royal (Fr.)

Roots:Used as a sedative in nervous disorders [Penosbcot: 44].

Dactylorhizaviridis (L.) R.M. Bateman, A.M. Pridgeon & M.W. Chase

Syn.:Habenariabracteata (Muhl. ex Willd.)R. Br.

Orchidaceae, Herb

rein orchis (Eng.); habénaire à longues bractées (Fr.); goko’cgûnda mînêskwe’mîn (Ojibwa)

Aphrodisiac [Ojibwa: 87].

Dalea purpurea Vent.

Syn.:Petalostemonpurpureus (Vent.) Rydb.

Fabaceae, Herb

purple prairie-clover (Eng.); dalée violette (Fr.); ba’sibûgûk’ (Ojibwa)

Leaves and flowers: Decoction taken for heart trouble [Ojibwa: 47].

Dasiphorafruticosa (L.) Rydb. ssp.floribunda (Pursh) KarteszSyn.:Potentillafruticosa auct. non L.

Rosaceae, Shrub

shrubby cinquefoil (Eng.); potentille frutescente (Fr.)

Whole plant:Decoction taken as a tea to treat fever [Dene: 98].

Delphiniumglaucum S. Watson

Ranunculaceae, Herb

tall larkspur (Eng.); pied-d’alouette glauque (Fr.)

Whole plant:Tea used to wash hair and kill lice [Dene: 100].

Diervilla lonicera Mill.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

bush honeysuckle (Eng.); dièreville chèvrefeuille, herbe bleue (Fr.); wežauškwagmik, osawa’skanet (Ojibwa); maskōcīpihk (Cree); asasunatuk (Atikamekw)

Bark: Infusion used as an eye wash and against constipation [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots or stem: Infusion or decoction cooled and applied to sore eyes [Cree: 95].

Roots: Tea used to induce lactation at the time of childbirth [Cree: 95]. Mixed with other plants and used for urinary problems [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Diuretic when used withCornus canadensis [Atikamekw: 73]. Decoction taken in stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Dirca palustris L.

Thymelaceae, Shrub

moosewood, leatherwood, wicopy, rope-bark (Eng.); dirca des marais, bois de plomb (Fr.); djibe’gûb (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped to make a drink for pulmonary troubles [Ojibwa: 85]. Mixed withArtemisia dracunculusin a decoction used as a hair ointment [Ojibwa: 47].

Bark:Tea used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Inner bark:Tea used as a laxative [Algonquin: 69].

Stalk: Dreid, pulverized and steeped in water and taken as a physic; green stalk chewed as a physic [Ojibwa: 47].

Dryopteris carthusiana(Vill.) H. P. Fuchs

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

spinulose shield fern (Eng.); dryoptère spinuleuse (Fr.); ku(h)kuguwpuk (Cree)

Frond:Mixed with other plants in a decoction drunk for kidney pain. A different mix is used as a wash for skin diseases, and yet another mix is smoked to treat insanity [Dene: 13].

Dryopterisexpansa (C. Presl) Fraser-Jenkins & Jermy

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

spreading wood fern (Eng.); dryoptère dressée (Fr.)

Young shoots:Boiled and eaten to stimulate appetite[Cree: 93].

Roots: Cancer medicine [Cree: 93].

Dryopterismarginalis (L.) A. Gray

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

marginal shield fern (Eng.); dryoptère à sores marginaux, dryoptéride marginale (Fr.)

Rhizomes:Infusion drunk as a vermifugal [Cree: 74].

Dryopterissp.

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

fern (Eng.); dryoptère, dryoptéride (Fr.); uîshakâtshâkuat (Montagnais)

Leaves: Dried, steeped into hot water and applied to swells and hemorroids [Montagnais: 71].

Echinocystislobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

Cucurbitaceae, Vine

wild balsam-apple (Eng.); échinocystis lobé, concombre sauvage (Fr.); nîgîtîni’gûnûk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used as a tonic and as a bitter medicine for stomach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Echinodontium tinctorium (Ellis & Ev.) Ellis & Ev.

Echinodontiaceae, Fungi

Indian paint fungus (Eng.); meah-kis-igun (Cree)

Powdered and mixed with water to make a paste applied to wounds or given internally as an emetic [Cree: 76].

Empetrum nigrumL.

Empetraceae, Shrub

crowberry, curlewberry (Eng.); camarine noire, graines noires (Fr.); askīmināsiht, ebshjimend (Cree); dineech’ùh (Dene)

Whole plant:Tea drunk for diarrhoea [Dene: 100].

Berries:Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Roots: Mixed with other plants in a decoction drunk to treat cough [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Twigs: Used as a diuretic [Cree: 95]. Boiled with spruce cones and tea applied to sores, or drunk to cure mouth infections and sore throats [Dene: 101].

Roots, berries and stems: Tea drunk for stomach ache and cold [Dene: 99].

Branches and roots: Boiled and tea drunk to cure mouth infections [Dene: 101].

Branches and berries: Boiled and tea drunk to ease menstrual pain, pain related to child birth, and to cure mouth infections. Also applied to rashes [Dene: 101].

Epigaea repensL.

Ericaceae, Shrub

trailing arbutus, mayflower (Eng.); épigée rampante, fleur de mai (Fr.)

Leaves:Tea drunk for kidney disorders [Algonquin: 69].

Equisetum arvenseL.

Equisetaceae, Herb

horsetail (Eng.), prêle des champs, queue de renard (Fr.); mistatimosoy, okotāwask, enskowusk, kiychiwiykusk (Cree); jasibonskok, gîji’bînûsk (Ojibwa); kheh dyè’ (Dene)

Tea used to treat kidney problems, bladder infections or urinary track problems [Dene: 100].

Whole plant: Tea used to cure dropsy [Ojibwa: 87].

Above-ground fertile shoots: Decoction used as a diuretic or in kidney troubles [Cree: 95].

Stem and leaves: Burned and the ashes applied to running sores [Metis: 13]. Steamed for nasal congestion, cold and stomach ailments [Dene: 99].

Stem: Decoction drunk as a remedy for dysuria [Ojibwa: 85]. Herbal water used to treat kidney problems [Cree: 93].

Roots: Heated and applied to aching teeth [Metis: 13].

Equisetum hyemaleL.

Equisetaceae, Herb

scouring rush, horsetail (Eng.); prêle d’hiver (Fr.); gijib’inûskon’ (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Burned and used as a disinfectant [Ojibwa: 47].

Above-ground parts: Tea taken in kidney problems [Cree: 96].

Equisetumpalustre L.

Equisetaceae, Herb

marsh horsetail (Eng.); prêle des marais (Fr.)

Mixed withMonarda punctata in a tea used for constipation or stomach trouble [Ojibwa: 19].

Equisetum pratenseEhrh

Equisetaceae, Herb

common horsetail (Eng.); prêle des prés (Fr.); wishgobidjibik (Ojibwa)

Mixed with horse-mint in a tea used in stomach trouble [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots:Decoction taken as a diuretic [Dene: 98]. Boiled with the roots ofRubusidaeus ssp.strigosus and taken in stomach problems [Dene: 98].

Equisetum sylvaticumL.

Equisetaceae, Herb

horsetail (Eng.); prêle des bois (Fr.); mistatimosoy, okotāwask, enskowusk, kiychiwiykusk (Cree); siba’mûckûn (Ojibwa)

Rhizomes:Mixed with other plants and boiled to make a wash for skin diseases [Dene: 13].

Whole plant: Tea used to cure kidney trouble and dropsy [Ojibwa: 87].

Erigeron canadensis L.

Asteraceae, Herb

Canadian horseweed (Eng.); érigéron du Canada (Fr.); gababi’kwûna’tĭg (Ojibwa)

Used in diarrhoea [Cree: 42].

Whole plant: Steeped to treat “female weaknesses” [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves and roots:Decoction taken in stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Erigeronphiladelphicus L.

Asteraceae, Herb

Philadelphia fleabane (Eng.);érigéron de Philadelphie (Fr.);mîcaogacan (Ojibwa)

Flowers:Dried, smoked and inhaled to cure cold, or tea drunk to break fever [Ojibwa: 87].

Erigeronsp.

Asteraceae, Herb

Canada fleabane (Eng.)

Decoction used for diarrhoea [44].

Erigeronstrigosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Syn.:E. ramosus(Walt.) BSP

Asteraceae, Herb

daisy fleahane (Eng.);érigéron hispide (Fr.);nokwe’sîgûn (Ojibwa)

Perfume inhaled to cure headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Eriophorumsp.

Cyperaceae, Herb

cotton grass (Eng.); linaigrette (Fr.)

Boiled and drunk for stomach problems [Dene: 17].

Roots: Used in a mixture with spruce bark or spruce tips (new growth) to treat cancer [Dene: 17].

*Eryngiumaquaticum L.

Apiaceae, Herb

button snakeroot (Eng.); panicaut aquatique (Fr.)

Remedy for snake bite. Mixed withIris versicolor and used as a febrifuge or diuretic [44].

*Erysimum cheiranthoidesL.

Cruciferea, Herb

wormseed mustard (Eng.); vélar giroflée, herbe au chantre (Fr.); o’zawa’bigwûn (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction used to treat skin eruptions [Ojibwa: 47].

Eupatorium maculatum L.

Asteraceae, Herb

joe-pye-weed (Eng.); eupatoire maculée (Fr.); me’skwana’k bû’giso’wĭn (Ojibwa)

For menstrual disorders and venereal diseases, or to facilitate childbirth [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Decoction used as a wash for inflamed joints [Ojibwa: 47].

Eupatorium perfoliatumL.

Asteraceae, Herb

thoroughwort, common boneset (Eng.); eupatoire perfoliée, herbe à souder (Fr.); siabuksing, sasabwaksing, niya’wibûkûk’ (Ojibwa); maladag’kwinbisoun (Abenaki)

Used as general medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Steeped with other plants (Pyrola uliginosa,Baptisia tinctoria,Galium aperine,Aralia racemosa,Streptopus amplesifolius,Acer pennsylvanicum) and used for gonorrhea, kidney troubles and blood spitting [Algonquians: 63]. Used to strengthen the bones [Abenaki: 67]. Decoction used for fever and cold [44]. Chewed and bound on a rattle-snake bite as a poultice to draw out the poison. Boiled with wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) to make a fomentation to be applied for rheumatism [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots: Used for menstrual disorders [Ojibwa: 85]. Steeped and liquid taken to treat ulcers [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Eupatorium purpureum L.

Asteraceae, Herb

joe-pye weed (Eng.); eupatoire pourpre (Fr.); biaskagemesek (Ojibwa)

Boiled and the vapors inhaled to treat cold. Mixed with other species and used to counteract the effects of a miscarriage [Ojibwa: 85].

Euphorbia corollata L.

Euphorbiaceae, Herb

flowering spurge (Eng.); euphorbe pétaloïde (Fr.); cabosî’kûn, (Ojibwa)

Roots: Pounded and taken as an infusion before eating as a physic [Ojibwa: 87].

Euphorbiasp.

Euphorbiaceae, Herb

spurge (Eng.); euphorbe (Fr.)

Leaves: Tea used to treat diabetes [Algonquin: 69].

Eurybiamacrophylla (L.) Cass.

Syn.:Astermacrophyllus L.

Asteraceae, Herb

large-leaved aster (Eng.); aster à grandes feuilles, pétouane (Fr.); naskosi’îcûs (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea from young roots used to bathe the head for headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Euthamiagraminifolia (L.) Nutt.

Syn.:Solidagograminifolia (L.) Salisb.

Asteraceae, Herb

grass leaf goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or graminifoliée (Fr.); wasa’waskwûne’k (Ojibwa)

Flowers:Infusion used for chest pain [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots:Decoction used in lung trouble [Ojibwa: 47].

Evernia mesomorphaNyl.

Parmeliaceae, Lichen

spruce moss (Eng.); k’itsanjú (Chipewyan)

Cooled decoction used as eye drops to treat snow blindness [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Fagus grandifoliaEhrh.

Fagaceae, Tree

beech (Eng.), hêtre à grandes feuilles (Fr.); šewe-minš (Ojibwa); miki’kwimus (Malecite)

Bark: Used as a general medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Mixed with bark ofBetula lenta andCornus sericea and used for pulmonary trouble [Ojibwa: 85].

Leaves:Applied to sores [Malecite: 65]. Soothing to the nerves and the stomach and help stimulate appetite [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Bark and leaves: Mixed with water and used as a tonic, antiseptic, or to heal ulcers, liver, kidney or bladder [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Fomes fomentarius(L. Ex Fries) J. Kickx f.

Polyporaceae, Fungi

tinder fungus (Eng.); amadouvier (Fr.); wāsāsukwītwī, wāsaskwītoy, posākan (Cree).

Fruiting body burned to repell mosquitoes and flies [Metis: 13). Dry, spore producing layer cut into matchstick shaped pieces and placed on the skin and burned to produce counter-irritation to treat arthritis [Cree: 95].

Fomes officinalis

Polyporaceae, Fungi

agarikon (Eng.); polypore officinal (Fr.); wah-pah-toos (Cree)

Pulverized and applied to frostbite [Cree: 76].

Fomes pinicola(Swartz) Cooke

Polyporaceae, Fungi

polypore marginé, amadouvier des pins (Fr.); mech-quah-too (Cree)

Powdered and mixed with water to make a paste applied to wounds or taken internally as an emetic [Cree: 76]. Smoked to treat headache [Dene: 98].

Fragariavesca L. ssp.bracteata (A. Heller) Staudt

Syn.:F. bracteata A. Heller

Rosaceae, Herb

woodland strawberry (Eng.); fraisier (Fr.)

Leaves, roots and fruits: Mixed with boiling water and used as a blood purifier and blood-building agent [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves or roots: Tea given as a gargle for gum problems, or used in diarrhoea or dysentery, weakness of the intestines, infections of urinary organs, or to prevent night sweats [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Fruits: Heart medicine [Dene: 17].

Runners:Boiled with ‘Petasites sagittatusand ‘Pyrola asarifolia and drunk as a medicine [Dene: 17].

Fragaria virginianaDuchesne.

Rosaceae, Herb

wild strawberry (Eng.); fraisier des champs (Fr.); ode’imĭnĭdji’bĭk (Ojibwa); otehimina, otīhīminah, okdeamena, owtiyhiymin, otīhīminipukwah (Cree);

Steeped withRubus triflorus and given in irregular menstruation [Malecite: 65].

Whole plant: Decoction drunk to treat heart problems [Cree: 13]. Boiled and the liquid drunk as a treatment for diarrhoea [Metis: 13; Cree: 93].

Leaves: Used as an astringent [Ojibwa: 88].

Roots:Used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 88]. Decoction used in cholera [Ojibwa: 47] and tea in stomach ache [Ojibwa: 87]. Herbal water taken for heart problems [Cree: 93].

Fruits: Heart medicine [Dene: 17].

Runners:Boiled with ‘Petasites sagittatusand ‘Pyrola asarifolia and drunk as a medicine [Dene: 17].

Fragariavirginiana Duchesne ssp.glauca (S. Watson) Staudt

Rosaceae, Herb

smooth wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry (Eng.); fraisier glauque (Fr.)

Roots: Burned and the ash mixed with water and placed on open sores [Dene: 98].

Fraxinus americanaL.

Oleaceae, Tree

yellow ash (Eng.); frêne d’Amérique, frêne blanc (Fr.); ôgmakw (Abenaki)

Used as an emmenagogue [Abenaki: 67].

Leaves: Strong decoction given as a cleanser after delivery [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60].

Wood: Smoke used to treat earache [Algonquin: 68].

Fraxinus nigraMarsh.

Oleaceae, Tree

black or water ash (Eng.); frêne noir, frêne gras (Fr.); a’gimak’ (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Soaked in water and the liquid applied to sore eyes [Ojibwa: 84].

Fraxinuspennsylvanica Marsh.

Oleaceae, Tree

red ash (Eng.); frêne de Pennsylvanie, frêne rouge (Fr.); a’gîma’k (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Mixed with other plants and used as a tonic [Ojibwa: 87]. Tea used against weariness and depression [Atikamekw: 73].

Fraxinussp.

Oleaceae, Tree

ash (Eng.); frêne (Fr.); a’gimak’ (Ojibwa)

Log or branch: Placed in fire, sap collected from the opposite end and used to treat earache [Algonquin: 69].

Inner bark: Decoction taken internally as a tonic and stimulant [Ojibwa: 47].

*Galeopsis tetrahit L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

hemp nettle (Eng.); galéopside à tige carrée (Fr.); amisko wehkuswa (Cree)

Tea drunk to calm nerves, reduce hyperactivity in children, as a spring tonic, to restore appetite, and to treat bad breath [Dene: 13].

Leaves: Chewed to treat severe hiccups [Dene: 13].

Galium aparineL.

Rubiaceae, Herb

goose grass (Eng.); gaillet gratteron (Fr.); sakate’bwi (Ojibwa)

Used for gonorrhea, kidney troubles and for blood spitting [Algonquians: 63].

Whole plant: Tea used as a diuretic, in kidney trouble, gravel, stoppage of urine, and allied ailments [Ojibwa: 87].

Stem:Dippedin cold water and rubbed on rashes or other skin troubles [Algonquians: 63].

Galium boreale L.

Rubiaceae, Herb

northern bedstraw (Eng.); gaillet boréal (Fr.)

Used as a diuretic [Cree: 42]. Flowering plant boiled and drunk to treat stomach ache [Dene: 17].

Galiumtinctorium (L.) Scop.

Rubiaceae, Herb

small cleaver (Eng.); gaillet des teinturiers (Fr.); waboskîki’mînûn (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Tea used for beneficial effects upon the respiratory organs [Ojibwa: 87].

Galiumtrifidum L.

Rubiaceae, Vine

small bedstraw (Eng.); gaillet trifide (Fr.); Ojîbwe’owe’cûwûn (Ojibwa)

Tea used for skin diseases such as eczema, ringworm and scrofula [Ojibwa: 87].

Gaultheriahispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow

Ericaceae, Shrub

creeping snowberry, moxieplum (Eng.); petit thé (Fr.); wabos’obûgons’ (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Tea used as a tonic [Algonquin: 69]. Used on cuts, burns, against tapeworms and to treat venereal diseases [Ojibwa: 19]. Boiled and taken for congested chest [Cree: 80]. Herbal water taken for fever and high blood pressure. Boiled and given to babies as a soother during teething [Cree: 93].

Fruits:Used in diabetes [Cree: 82, 83].

Gaultheria procumbens L.

Ericaceae, Shrub

teaberry, checkerberry, wintergreen (Eng.); thé des bois, gaulthérie couchée (Fr.); pileuminan (Innu); pirebow (Atikamekw); winsibog, wînîsi’bûgûd (Ojibwa)

Mixed with mayapple, wild sarsaparilla, wild spikenard, burdock,Taraxacum officinale, prickly ash, black berry, sassafras, prince’s pine, and black birch in a decoction used as a “spring and fall medicine” [Ojibwa: 85]. Steeped and taken as a blood flow regulator to prevent heart attacks [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Tea used in colds, headaches, and general discomforts [Atikamekw: 73; Algonquin: 69].

Leaves: Used for colds, chewed to improve breathing [Algonquin: 55]. Tea used to cure rheumatism and as a tonic [Ojibwa: 87]. Used to make a chest plaster to treat cold [Atikamekw: 73].

Fruits: Used as a stimulant and diuretic [Algonquin: 55]

Geocaulonlividum (Richardson) Fernald

Syn.:Comandralividum Richardson

Santalaceae, Herb

northern comandra,false toadflax (Eng.); comandre livide (Fr.); sasjie (Chipewyan)

Medicinal plant [Cree: 42].

Fruits: Used for persistent chest trouble [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Geranium maculatumL.

Geraniaceae, Herb

wild geranium, cranesbill (Eng.); géranium maculé (Fr.); be’cigodji’bigûk, pesigunk, o’sawaskwîni’s (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and used for diarrhoea [Ojibwa: 85]. Powdered and put into sore mouth [Ojibwa: 47, 87]. Used to treat flux [Ojibwa: 87].

Rhizomes: Used as an intestinal astringent [Ojibwa: 44].

Geumaleppicum Jacq.

Syn.:G. strictum Aiton

Rosaceae, Herb

Alep avens (Eng.); benoîte d’Alep (Fr.); makwanimiga’kil (Maletice); kākwīthitamōwask (Cree); ne’bone’ankwe’âk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and used for cough and cold [Maletice: 65]. Weak decoction taken internally for cough and soreness in the chest [Ojibwa: 84]. Decoction alone or mixed with other plants given to treat teething pain. Decoction used for sore tooth, sore throat, or to induce sweating [Cree: 95].

Geumcanadense Jacq.

Rosaceae, Herb

white avens, Canada avens (Eng.); benoîte du Canada (Fr.)

Roots: Used in “female weakness” [Ojibwa: 47].

Geum macrophyllumWilld.

Rosaceae, Herb

large-leaved avens (Eng.); benoîte à grande feuilles (Fr.); kākwīthitamōwask, saw-gee-too-wusk (Cree); wica’wasa’konek (Ojibwa)

Used as a “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87] or as component of a compound medicine [Metis: 13].

Roots: Decoction used in combination with other plants to treat teething pain [Cree: 95].

Geum rivaleL.

Rosaceae, Herb

water avens, chocolate root (Eng.); benoîte des ruisseaux (Fr.); kinipagwusk (Cree); egwitkil (Malecite); mikotcepik (Atikamekw)

Roots: Strong decoction given in dysentery, cough and cold, particularly for children [Algonquians: 63]. Steeped and given in diarrhoea [Malecite: 65]. Boiled four times and the fourth water is used to treat blood spitting [Atikamekw: 73]. Tea used to facilitate childbirth [Cree, Metis: 13].

Geumtriflorum Pursh

Syn.:Sieversiaciliata (Pursh) G. Don

Rosaceae, Herb

prairie smoke (Eng.); benoîte à trois fleurs (Fr.); ne’baneya’nekweäg’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used as a tonic after childbirth [Ojibwa: 19]. Decoction taken in indigestion. Dried and chewed as a tonic and stimulant [Ojibwa: 47].

Glyceriacanadensis (Michx.) Trin.

Poaceae, Herb

rattlesnake grass, Canada managrass (Eng.); glycérie du Canada (Fr.); anagon’wûck (Ojibwa)

Roots:Used as a “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87].

Gnaphaliumsp.

Asteraceae, Herb

gnaphale (Fr.)

Decoction used for coughing and consumption [Algonquians: 63].

Grindelia squarrosa(Pursh) Dunal.

Asteraceae, Herb

curly-cup gumweed (Eng.); herbe à gomme commune (Fr.); kāpasakwāk maskīhkīh, kah pus kun askik (Cree)

Used in gonorrhoea and to prevent pregnancy [Cree: 76].

Flowers: Tea used to treat migraines and venereal diseases [Metis: 13].

Gymnocarpiumdisjunctum (Rupr.) Chin

Syn.:Dryopterisdisjuncta (Rupr.) Morton

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

oak fern (Eng.); dryoptéride disjointe (Fr.)

Used to treat cholera [Abenaki: 67].

Gymnocarpium dryopteris(L.) Newman

Syn.:Dryopterislinnaeana C. Chr.

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

western oak fern (Eng.); gymnocarpe du chêne (Fr.); oraganiockokuk (Atikamekw)

Leaves: Crushed and rubbed on face to prevent or to sooth mosquito bite [Atikamekw: 73].

Hamamelis virginianaL.

Hamamelidaceae, Tree

witch hazel (Eng.); hamamélis de Virginie, café du diable (Fr.); nsakemižins (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Used as an emetic, especially in cases of poisoning. Steeped and strained as a lotion for skin trouble, and as a wash for sore eyes [Ojibwa: 85].

Bark: Infusion used for bruises, piles and hemorrhages [44].

Hedysarumalpinum L.Syn.:H. alpinum L. ssp.americanum (Michx.) Fedtsch.

Fabaceae, Herb

alpine hedysarum, bear root, Indian carrots (Eng.); sainfoin alpin (Fr.); treh (Dene)

Roots:Eaten raw or with duck or fish oil to increase appetite or to relieve diarrhoea [Dene: 99].Burned and smoke used to relieve sore eyes [Dene: 98].

Helenium autumnaleL.

Asteraceae, Herb

Syn:Heleniumautumnale L. var.montanum (Nutt.)Fernald

Asteraceae, Herb

sneezeweed, swamp sunflower (Eng.); hélénie automnale (Fr.); cācāmōsikan (Cree)

Flowers: Dried, crumbled and inhaled to trigger sneezing in order to treat a headache [Cree: 13, 96].

Helianthusoccidentalis Riddell

Asteraceae, Herb

sunflower (Eng.); pŭkite’wŭkbŏkuns’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Crushed and applied to bruises and contusions [Ojibwa: 84].

Heliopsishelianthoides (L.) Sweet var.scabra (Dunal) Fernald

Syn.:H. scabra Dunal

Asteraceae, Herb

ox-eye-daisy, false sunflower (Eng.); héliopsis faux-hélianthe (Fr.); gi’zĭso’bûgons’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used as a tonic [Ojibwa: 47].

Hepaticanobilis Schreb. var.obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.

Syn.:H.americana (DC.) Ker Gawl.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

hepatica, American liverleaf (Eng.); hépatique d’Amérique (Fr.); gabisan’ikeäg’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken internally in convulsions [Ojibwa: 47].

Hepatica trilobaChaix.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

hepatica (Eng.); hépatique trilobée (Fr.); pne-uzidin, pnen-obogons (Ojibwa)

Used as an ingredient in poultices for inflamations and bruises, and also as a remedy for liver ailments [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots: Mixed with sweet cicely (Osmorhiza longistylis) and tall anemone (Anemone virginiana) and boiled to make a remedy for amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 85].

Heracleummaximum Bartram

Syn.: H. lanatumMichx.

Apiaceae, Herb

cow parsnip, indian rhubarb (Eng.), berce très grande (Fr.); pukwanatik, pakwānāhtik, askīskatask, askīwīskātask, ōskātaskwistikwān, piygwanā(h)tik, pick quan ah tick (Cree); sewapo’kil (Malecite); bi’bîgwe’wûnûck (Ojibwa); uîpîtakâshku tshîtshue(Montagnais)

Steeped withCalmus and given in cholera [Malecite: 65]. Dried, chopped, and rubbed on aching or sore body parts. Cooled decoction used to bathe sore body parts, and the decoction can be drunk for colds [Cree: 13]. Used to keep sickness away and in combating cold and/or influenza [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots: Fresh or dried root applied to an aching tooth [Cree: 13, 76, 93]. Chewed and juice swallowed to treat tooth ache [Cree: 96]. Part of a cancer medicine. Grated and mixed with warm water to make a paste applied to swollen legs. [Metis: 13]. Tea used for throat pain [Montagnais: 71]. Fresh root pounded and applied to sores as a poultice [Ojibwa: 87]. Powdered and made into a paste applied to boils, swellings and chancre [Cree: 76]. Mixed with other plants (Nuphar variegatum, Acorus calamus) to make a poultice applied to painful limbs or used for headache [Cree: 95]. Steeped and taken as a tea for blood purification, to prevent and cure smallpox, and in consumption [Malecite: 65]. Chewed dry to treat sore throat, decoction used to gargle, and poultice applied to boils and sores [Ojibwa: 47, 88]. Decoction used for arthritis [Cree: 13, 80]. Boiled and used to clean skin infections [Cree: 80]. Decoction drunk as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Roots and leaves: Steam from boiling inhaled to purify the body [Cree: 13].

Roots and flowers: Dried, pounded and made into a poultice used in boils [Ojibwa: 47].

Heuchera richardsoniiR. Br.

Saxifragaceae, Herb

Richardson’s alumroot (Eng.); heuchère de Richardson (Fr.); pithīkōcīpihk (Cree); ciwade’imĭn’ĭbûg (Ojibwa)

Roots: Chewed or made into a decoction taken in diarrhoea. Infusion used to wash sore eyes [Cree: 95]. Dried, chewed and the juice swallowed in stomach pain. Chewed in sore mouth. Decoction used to treat sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47].

Hierochloe odorata(L.) Beauv.

Poaceae, Herb

sweet-grass, vanilla grass (Eng.); hiérochloé odorante, foin d’odeur, herbe sainte (Fr.); wehkuskwa, wekus (Cree)

Decoction given to facilitate childbirth for young mothers [Cree: 13].

Hordeum jubatumL.

Poaceae, Herb

squirrel-tail (Eng.); orge agréable (Fr.); a’djidamo’wano (Ojibwa)

Roots: Dried, pounded, put in a moist cloth with warm water and sopped on the eyes to treat sty or inflammation of lids [Ojibwa: 47].

Hudsonia tomentosaNutt.

Cestaceae, Shrub

ground berry, woolly hudsonia (Eng.); hudsonie tomenteuse (Fr.)

Whole plant: Boiled and liquid drunk to purge women blood [Algonquians: 63].

Humuluslupulus L.

Cannabaceae, Vine

hop (Eng.); houblon commun (Fr.); jiwî’cgoni’bûg (Ojibwa)

Tea acts like saleratus on the system, increasing the excresence of urine and reducing its acidity [Ojibwa: 87].

Hydrophyllum virginianum L.

Hydrophyllaceae, Herb

eastern waterleaf (Eng.); hydrophylle de Virginie (Fr.); hunkite’wagūŭs’, ne’bîneankwe’ûk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Boiled and taken for chest or back pain [Ojibwa: 84; 44]. Used to keep flux in check [Ojibwa: 87].

*Hylotelephiumtelephium (L.) H. Ohba ssp.telephium

Syn.: Sedumtelephium L.

Crassulaceae, Herb

garden stonecrop, live-forever (Eng.); orpin pourpre (Fr.); mediawigagil (Malecite)

Leaves: Poultice used in boils [Malecite: 65].

Hymenoxys richardsonii(Hook.) Cockerell.

Asteraceae, Herb

Richardon’s bitterweed, Colorado rubber-plant (Eng.); hymenoxys de Richardson (Fr.)

Roots: Ground into a powder and used as a snuff to induce sneezing to clear head and relieve head colds and headaches [Cree: 13].

*Hypericum perforatumL.

Clusiaceae, Herb

St. John’s wort (Eng.); millepertuis commun (Fr.)

Boiled to make a cough medicine [Algonquians: 63].

Ilexmucronata (L.) Powell, Savolainen & Andrews

Syn.:Nemopanthusmucronatus (L.) Loes.

Aquifoliaceae, Tree

mountain holly (Eng.); faux houx,némopanthe mucroné (Fr.); mîckimînû’nîmîc (Ojibwa); wudjiga’nimus (Malecite); kâmatshakâshit shakâu (Montagnais)

Fruits: Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Steeped and taken in gravel [Malecite: 65].

Leaves:Used to restore lost appetite and to strengthen the stomach [Cree: 44].

Inner bark: Scraped in water, boiled and paste applied to head to reduce pain [Montagnais: 71].

Ilex verticillata(L.) Gray

Aquifoliaceae, Tree

winterberry (Eng.); houx verticillé (Fr.); awe’nîsibûg (Ojibwa)

Bark:Used in diarrhoea [Ojibwa: 86].

Impatienscapensis Meerb.

Syn.: I. bifloraWalter

Balsaminaceae, Herb

spotted jewelweed, Cape touch-me-not (Eng.); impatiente du Cap (Fr.); pesgide’skil (Malecite); wesa’wûs ga’skonêk (Ojibwa)

Steeped and taken to cure jaundice [Malecite: 65]. Fresh juice rubbed on head to cure headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Stems: Bruised and applied to cure rash or other skin troubles [Chippewa: 85].

Leaves:Steeped to make a medicinal tea [Ojibwa: 87].

Impatiens pallidaNutt.

Balsaminaceae, Herb

pale jewelweed, pale touch-me-not (Eng.); impatiente pâle (Fr.)

Stems: Bruised and applied to cure rash or other skin troubles [Ojibwa: 85].

Inonotus obliquus(Ach. Ex Pers.) Pil.

Hymenochaetaceae, Fungi

tinder fungus (Eng.); polypore oblique (Fr.); pōsākan, wīsakīchak omīkī, wīsakecak omikīh (Cree)

Decoction drunk to treat heart conditions or mixed with other plants in a medicinal tea for high blood pressure. Soaked overnight and given to help an underweight child gain weight [Cree: 13]. Placed on the skin and burned to produce a counter-irritation in the treatment of arthritis [Cree: 95].

*Inula helenium L.

Asteraceae, Herb

elecampane (Eng.); inule aulnée, elecampane (Fr.) minsisimatek (Malecite);

Roots: Powdered and snuffed to treat headache. Steeped and taken in heart trouble [Malecite: 65].

Iris versicolorL.

Iridaceae, Herb

muskrat, blue flag, (Eng.); iris versicolore (Fr.); na’bûkûck (Ojibwa); wa-dusk-skwamuk (Atikamekw)

General medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used as a purgative [Cree: 42]. Remedy for gastric disturbances [44]. Steepped withScirpus rubrotinctus and gargle in sore throat [Malecite: 65].

Whole plant: Steamed to keep diseases away. Crushed and mixed with flour to make a poultice placed on painful body parts [Algonquians: 63].

Roots:Pounded to a pulp laid on a platain leaf and applied to serofulous sores [Chippewa: 85]. Steeped and used for cholera [Algonquians: 63; Chippewa: 85]. Powdered, mixed with warm water and given to infants to relieve stomach cramps, belching or indigestion [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Pounded and applied to burns and wounds [Atikamekw: 73]. Poultice applied to swellings [Ojibwa: 47]. Boiled in water and taken as physic and emetic [Ojibwa: 87].

Juglans cinereaL.

Juglandaceae, Tree

butternut (Eng.); noyer cendré (Fr.); pcgacnmus (Malecite)

Sap: Boiled down until thick and waxy, mixed with cornmeal, and taken as a cathartic [Chippewa: 85].

Bark: Steeped and taken before breakfast as purgative [Malecite: 65].

Juniperus communis L.

Cupressaceae, Tree

juniper (Eng.); genévrier commun, genièvre (Fr.); kawins (Chippewa), kahkakew-mina, kahkakewatik, ahaseminanatik, kakakìmìniatik, kākākīmīnātik, kākākīwīmināhtik, māsakiys (Cree); datsánjíé (Chipewyan); tuna’liguk'(malecite); ga’gawan’dagisĭd (Ojibwa); kâkâtshiminânakashî (Montagnais); deetrèe jàk (Dene)

Steeped with Prince’s pine and taken in consumption [Malecite: 65].

Above-ground parts: Tea used for cold or stomach ache [Dene: 100].

Fruits:Inner bark and juice of berries used to treat ulcers [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Stewed and strained and the liquid given for cold, bladder problems, and as a diuretic [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Boiled and taken for chest pains, bad colds, coughs and congestion [Dene: 99]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree: 82]. Tea drunk to ease back pain [Dene: 101].

Roots: Decoction used in calculus, cystitis and Bright’s disease [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Boiled with other plants to make a decoction drunk to treat menstrual cramps [Dene: 13]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Leaves:Dried, powdered and dusted on psoriasis and eczema [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Bark:Boiled until a jelly forms, used to treat boils [Algonquin: 75]. Mixed with another plant and soaked in warm water but not boiled, then the infusion can be drunk lukewarm to treat aches and pain [Cree: 13].

Inner bark: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77]. Softened in water and used as a poultice on wounds [Metis: 13; Cree: 42].

Twigs/stem: Tea given to ease bladder pain [Montagnais: 71]. Steeped and used in hair wash or taken as a tonic [Malecite: 65]. Stem debarked and used to make a tea to treat diarrhoea [Metis: 13]. Decoction of a barked procumbent stem or branch used to treat diarrhoea and sore chest. Mixed with other plants to make decoctions to treat “women troubles”, teething pain, sickness after childbirth, fever, and cough [Cree: 95].

Twigs and leaves: Boiled to make a drink for asthma [Chippewa: 85]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Boiled and steamed to hasten release of the placenta [Dene: 101].

Cones: Green cones boiled to make a diuretic remedy for kidney trouble. Can be smoked in a pipe to treat asthma [Metis: 13]. Berry-like cones eaten as a cure-all medicine [Chipewyan: 92].

Gum: Applied to wounds. Mixed with brandy and skunk cabbage and taken in tuberculosis. Applied to sprains, and to relieve soreness and pain [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Juniperus horizontalisMoench.

Cupressaceae, Shrub

creeping juniper, rocky mountain juniper (Eng.); genévrier horizontal (Fr.); ahaseminanatik, masekesh, masikeskatik (Cree)

Stems: Boiled with other plants to make a tea for treating cold and teething, and for use as a general system cleaner [Cree: 13].

Leaves: Burned and the smoke inhaled to clear sinuses plugged by a head cold [Metis: 13].

Berries:Used for back pain, boiled and taken in urinary tract problems [Cree: 81].Tea drunk to ease back pain [Dene: 101].

Branches: Boiled and steamed to hasten release of the placenta [Dene: 101].

Juniperus virginianaL.

Cupressaceae, Tree

red cedar (Eng.); genévrier de Virginie (Fr.); miskwa’wak (Ojibwa)

Leaves and twigs: Used as a diuretic [Cree: 42].

Leaves and fruits: Bruised and used internally to treat headache [Ojibwa: 84].

Twigs: Boiled with little twigs ofTaxux canadensis and taken internally to treat rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Kalmia angustifolia L.

Ericaceae, Shrub

lambkill, sheep laurel, (Eng.); kalmia à feuilles étroites, crevard de moutons (Fr.); mikwëwa’lwql (Malecite); wesajebo (Atikamekw); jabak (Abenaki); uschipikwh (Cree); uishetshipuk, uîshatshipukua (Innu)

Steeped in hot water and soaked in a woolen pad or rubbed on the limbs or body to relieve pain and stiffness [Montagnais: 70]. Used for head colds [Abenaki: 67]. Tea used for cold and as a tonic [Innu: 72]. Mixed withSorbus americana in a compress used on cuts and wounds [Innu: 72].

Bark: Tea used as an emetic [Algonquin: 75]. Steeped and used externally for rheumatism, sore legs and feet [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves: Although the leaves are known to be poisonous, a very small quantity can be steeped and drunk for cold, headache and backache. A hot water infusion (very poisonous if very strong) can also be drunk for stomach pain. Poultice applied to head to cure headache [Atikamekw: 73; Algonquians: 63]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77; 83]. Singed by fire, crushed and used in colds [Algonquin: 69]. Salve prepared from fresh parts and applied to swelling or sprain [Malecite: 65]. Tea used for throat pain [Montagnais: 71]. Applied to swells, arthritis or knee pain [Montagnais: 71]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Twigs, leaves and flowers: Used in bowel complaints and as a tonic [Cree: 42].

Twigs: Used to prepare a decoction for throat pain and mouth infections [Montagnais: 71].

Roots: Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Kalmialatifolia L.

Ericaceae, Tree

mountain laurel (Eng.); kalmia à feuilles larges (Fr.)

Used in diarrhoea [Cree: 42].

Kalmiapolifolia Wangenh.

Ericaceae, Shrub

pale bog laurel (Eng.); kalmia à feuilles d’andromède (Fr.); nágodhts’ëlé (Chipewyan)

Leaves:Chewed or drunk as tea to treat diarrhoea [Chipewyan: 92].

Lactucabiennis (Moench) Fernald

Syn.:L. spicata(Lam.) Hitchc.

Asteraceae, Herb

tall lettuce, blue lettuce (Eng.); laitue bisannuelle (Fr.); dadoca’bo (Ojibwa)

Tea from plant given to women with caked breasts to induce lactation [Ojibwa: 87].

Lactuca canadensisL.

Asteraceae, Herb

wild lettuce, Canada lettuce (Eng.); laitue du Canada (Fr.); odjici’gomĭn (Ojibwa)

Juice used in skin warts [Chippewa: 47].

Laporteacanadensis (L.) Weddell

Urticaceae, Herb

wood nettle, Canada nettle (Eng.); laportéa du Canada, ortie du Canada (Fr.); masa’natîk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

*Lappulasquarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.

Boraginaceae, Herb

stickweed (Eng.); bardanette (Fr.); ozaga’tĭgomĕns (Ojibwa)

Roots: Powdered and sniffed or fumes inhaled for headache [Ojibwa: 84].

Larixlaricina (Du Roi) K. Koch

Pinaceae, Tree

tamarack, larch (Eng), mélèze laricin, épinette rouge (Fr.); wakinakum, wakinakun, wakinākin, wāginagun, waachinaakin (Cree); poka’mus (Malecite); mŏsh’kīkiwa’dik, mû’ckîgwa’tîg (Ojibwa); mackigwatuk (Atikamekw); uatshinakan (Innu/Montagnais); oblanda’gasouk, pôbnôdageso (Abenaki); ts’iiteenjùh, diweh (Dene); nídhe (Chipewyan)

Used to stop vomiting [Cree: 95]. Boiled with crowberry and drunk to cure cold [Dene: 101]. Used on boils [Cree: 80].

Branches: Decoction used as a diuretic [Algonquians: 63]. Tea used for stomach pain, cold, fatigue, or for general health [Dene: 99]. Tea from fresh branches used to treat stomach problems [Dene: 101].

Bark: Used in suppurating wounds [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Steeped with alder bark (Alnus incana) to make an infusion for anemia [Chippewa: 85]. Steeped with spruce and fir bark and given in gonorrhoea [Melacite: 65]. Used to make a cough medicine [Abenaki: 67]. Used in chronic bronchitis, in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages and in phases of hemorrage [Ojibwa: 87]. Applied as a compress for eye problems, wounds and swelling [Montagnais: 71]. Boiled, cooled and taken as a cough syrup, for sore throat or mouth. Broth taken for stomach ache [Cree: 81].

Inner bark: Used as a poultice or boiled to make a wash for burns, boils [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92], frostbite [Cree: 13], hemorrhoids, infected wounds [Cree, Metis: 13], or cuts [Cree: 13]. Grinded finely, mixed with animal fat and used for skin sores and burns [Cree: 81]. Tea drunk to treat depression, used as an eye wash or for ear irritation [Cree: 13]. Green strips applied to burns and used to make a tea to treat sore threat [Algonquin: 75]. Chopped (fresh or dried) and applied to burns [Ojibwa: 47]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 83]. Boiled and given for sores and swelling [Algonquians: 63]. Chewed raw or boiled and taken to treat sore throat [Cree: 81]. Boiled and tea used to wash a wound. Tea drunk for pain relief, stomach problems, mouth infections, sore throat, fever, cold, flu and bleeding. Boiled with spruce cones and applied to wounds [Dene: 101]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Herbal water taken for heart problems [Cree: 93].

Needles and inner bark: Used for cough and to prepare poultices for treating infections [Atikamekw: 69; Innu: 72].

Inner bark and wood: Poultice applied to frostbite and deep cuts [Cree: 95].

Gum: Chewed to relieve indigestion [Cree: 13]. Used in deep cuts, wounds and burns [Cree: 81]. Applied fresh or boiled on cuts [Cree: 80]. Amber applied to wounds, or boiled and rubbed to cure sore mouth [Cree: 81].

Sap:Placed in eyes to treat snow blindness [Cree: 80].

Leaves: Used as inhalant and fumigator [Ojibwa: 87]. Tea used as a laxative [Atikamekw: 73].

Cones: Used to prepare a decoction for jaundice [Montagnais: 71]. Tea used to soothe cold and relieve headache [Dene: 99].

Twigs and gum: Used for cough [Montagnais: 71].

Leaves and bark:Crushed and used in headache [Ojibwa: 84].

Roots and bark: Tea used as a general medicine [Ojibwa: 86]. Mixed with another plant in a decoction drunk daily to treat arthritis, pain, or cold [Cree: 13].

Pulp:Boiled and used to treat impetigo, or used to wash leg sores [Cree: 81]. Wrapped in cloths and placed on burns. Boiled, strained and taken in cough and cold [Cree: 80].

Wood:Chewed to treat sore throat [Cree: 81].

Bark, boughs and roots:Tea used to treat cold [Dene: 100].

Roots: Boiled and liquid used to heal wounds [Dene: 98].

Lasalliapapulosa (Ach.) Llano

Syn.:Umbilicariapapulosa (Ach.) Nyl.

Umbilicariaceae, Lichen

tripes-de-roches (Fr.); uâkuanâpishku (Montagnais)

Tea used for urinary problems [Montagnais: 71].

Lathyrus ochroleucusHook.

Fabaceae, Vine

creamy vetchling, pale vetchling (Eng.); gesse jaunâtre (Fr.); bûgwa’dj ûk pîni’k mîne’bûg (Ojibwa)

Used for stomach trouble [Ojibwa: 87].

Lathyrusvenosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Fabaceae, Herb

veiny vetchling, wild pea (Eng.); gesse veinée (Fr.); mĭ’nĭsĭno’wûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction applied to bleeding wounds or taken internally as a tonic and stimulant. Decoction (alone or mixed with roots ofApocynum androsaemifolium) taken internally to treat convulsions [Ojibwa: 47].

Lepidium virginicumL.

Brassicaceae, Herb

wild peppergrass (Eng.); lépidie de Virginie (Fr.)

General medicinal plant [Ojibwa: 86].

*Leucanthemumvulgare Lam.

Syn.:Chrysanthemumleucanthemum L.

Asteraceae, Herb

ox-eye daisy (Eng.); chrysanthème leucanthème, marguerite (Fr.); iskwew owehowina (Cree)

Flowers and leaves: Mixed with other plants in a tea that soothes nerves in adults and hyperactivity in children [Metis: 13].

Leymusmollis (Trin.) Pilg.

Poaceae, Herb

sea limegrass, American dunegrass (Eng.); seigle de mer (Fr.); kawabash (Cree)

Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Lilium canadenseL.

Liliaceae, Herb

Canada lily, wild yellow lily (Eng.); lis du Canada (Fr.); walbatweka.’gil (Malecite); wĭnabojo’bikwûk’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used in stomach disorders [Algonquin: 69]. Given withViburum lantago in irregular menstruation [Malecite: 65]. Decoction used externally to cure bites of poisonous reptiles [Ojibwa: 47].

Lilium philadelphicumL.

Liliaceae, Herb

orange-red lily, Philadelphia lily (Eng.); lis de Philadelphie (Fr.); wapayoominusk, wākican, wākiychān (Cree); miškodé-pin, miskode-pin (Ojibwa)

Bulbs: Boiled to make a poultice to be applied to wounds and contusions [Chippewa: 85].

Mixed with the root ofnibnatuguns, boiled and applied as a poultice on the bite of a dog [Chippewa: 85]. Boiled into a soup and taken to treat appendicitis. Tubers sticked into cavities to treat toothache [Cree: 93].

Roots: Part of a compound medicine used for heart problems [Dene: 13]. Used in stomach disorders [Algonquin: 69]. Grinded, soaked in warm water and applied as a poultice to swelling or bruise. Mixed with staghorn sumach, blackberry root, mountain holly and mountain raspberry root and used in consumption, cough, and fever [Malecite: 65].

Limoniumcarolinianum (Walter) Britton

Plumbaginaceae, Herb

sea lavender (Eng.); limonium de Caroline (Fr.)

Roots: Grinded and taken with water before each meal for consumption with hemorrhage [Mi’kmaq: 62].

*Linariavulgaris Mill.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

butter and eggs (Eng.); linaire vulgaire (Fr.); owacawa’skwûneg (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Dried and used with other plants in the sweat lodge as a bronchial inhalant [Ojibwa: 87].

Linnaea borealisL.

Caprifoliaceae, Herb

twin flower (Eng.), linnée boréale (Fr.); pâshpâshtshu (Montagnais)

Paste used to cure inflamation of the limbs [Algonquians: 63]. Tea used to fight chest pain [Montagnais: 71].

Whole plant: Tea used in menstrual difficulties, and to ensure good health of pregnant women’s babies [Algonquin: 69].

Lobelia inflataL.

Campanulaceae, Herb

Indian tobacco (Eng.); lobélie gonflée (Fr.)

Leaves: Dried and smoked as an emetic [44] and for general health [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Smoke blown into ear to treat earache [Mi’kmaq: 60].

Lobelia kalmiiL.

Campanulaceae, Herb

Ontario lobelia, Kalm’s lobelia (Eng.); lobélie de Kalm (Fr.)

Used as an emetic [Cree: 42].

Loniceracanadensis Bartram ex Marsh.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

American fly honeysuckle (Eng.); chèvrefeuille du Canada (Fr.)

Vines: Steeped for urinary troubles [Algonquians: 63].

Lonicera dioicaL.Syn.:L. dioica L. var.glaucescens (Rydb.) Butters

Caprifoliaceae, Vine

glaucous honeysuckle, limber honeysuckle (Eng.); chèvrefeuille dioïque (Fr.); šabankuk (Ojibwa); Sīpāhtik, sīpaminukusīatik, sīpaminitasīatik, sīpāminakasīwā(h)tik, gāganōnskīwaskwah, gagīnawonskiwaskwah, pay(h)payā(h)tik (Cree)

Soaked in water and used to wash hair to make it grow longer [Cree: 13].

Stems: Mixed withCornus sericea andneakmižinš and used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 85]. Nodes cut off and discarded and the internodes boiled to make a drink taken as a diuretic [Cree: 13]. Decoction used to treat blood clotting after childbirth, and venereal diseases [Cree: 95]. Tea taken in kidney problems [Cree: 96]. Boiled and taken as a diuretic [Dene: 98]. Herbal water taken in heart ailments [Cree: 93].

Bark: Mixed with other species in an infusion used instead of drinking water in case of dysuria [Ojibwa: 85]. Tea used in menstrual difficulties, to treat kidney stones, or as a cathartic [Algonquin: 69].

Inner bark:Infusion used as a diuretic [Cree: 95].

Roots: Decoction used in lung trouble [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction drunk to treat chronic bladder problems [Cree: 13] or to relieve constipation [Dene: 98].

Lonicerainvolucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

black twinberry; twinflower, honeysuckle (Eng.); chèvrefeuille involucré (Fr.); payipahtik, pipahtikwa (Cree)

Stem: Dried and boiled to make a decoction drunk to treat venereal diseases [Metis: 13].

Lycoperdon perlatum Pers.

Agaricaceae,Fungi

puffball fungus (Eng.); vesse-de-loup perlée (Fr.); wathaman, pesohkan, bībōgīthāmin, bīpōgīthamin, pissoskum, kōkōsiwathaman, kāpwīpocīpathisit, kāpikiy(h)tiypayta (Cree); datsántsíé (Chipewyan)

To stop bleeding from a cut, the mature puffball can be turned open and the inside surface of the skin, with its adhering cottony mass applied to the wound. Spores may also be squirted from the puffball onto the cut and into the nose to stop nosebleeding [Cree, Dene, Metis: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Spores can also be used as baby powder to prevent chafing [Dene: 13] or to treat weeping sores or burns [Dene: 98, 100].

Lycoperdonsp.

Agaricaceae,Fungi

puffball (Eng.); vesse-de-loup (Fr.); kâpîputepishiti (Montagnais)

Spores inhaled to stop nosebleeding [Dene: 101; Montagnais: 71; Cree: 93, 95] or applied to cuts to stop bleeding [Dene: 17] or to relieve skin rash [Dene: 101].

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodiaceae, Herb

stag’s horn, common club-moss (Eng.); lycopode claviforme, courants verts (Fr.)

Whole plant: Brewed and used for weakness and fever [Algonquians: 63]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 82].

Shoots: Used in diabetes [Cree: 83].

Lycopodiumdendroideum Michx.

Lycopodiaceae, Herb

round-branched tree-clubmoss, ground pine, bear paw (Eng.); lycopode dendroïde (Fr.)

General medicinal plant. Boiled and drunk as a purgative in case of biliousness [Algonquians: 63]. Mixed withDiervilla lonicera and used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Lycopodiumobscurum L.

Lycopodiaceae, Herb

ground pine (Eng.); lycopode foncé (Fr.)

Mixed with twigs ofPicea glauca and inner part of wood ofOstrya virginiana and used for steaming stiff joints in rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Lycopodiumsp.

Lycopodiaceae, Herb

club-moss, ground pine (Eng.); lycopode (Fr.); pâshitshinâkuana (Montagnais)

Whole plant: Tea for inducing labor and making childbirth easier, also used in treatments of bladder trouble in children [Algonquin: 69]. Weak runnings as antipyretics [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Steeped in hot water with seal oil or lard, along with balsam fir and used as a compress against diarrhoea for children [Montagnais: 71].

Lysichitonamericanus Hultén & H. St. John

Syn.:L. camtschatcensis auct. non (L.)Schott

Araceae, Herb

yellow skunk cabbage (Eng.); lysichiton d’Amérique (Fr.)

Used as a general medicine [Malecite: 59, Mi’kmaq: 62]. Small piece steeped in a cupful of water and taken in diabetes [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Maianthemum canadenseDesf.

Liliaceae, Herb

wild lily-of-the-valley, squirrel berry (Eng.); maïanthème du Canada, petit muguet (Fr.); sōsōwīpukōsak, sōskōpukwagōh (Cree); agongosî’mînûn (Ojibwa)

Used to “keep the kidneys open” during pregnancy, to cure sore throat and headache [Ojibwa: 87]. Tea drunk for headache [Algonquians: 63].

Leaves: Cleaned and applied directly on a cut as a bandage or a cooled decoction is used to soak a cut. Poultice used to treat swellings of the limbs [Cree: 13].

Maianthemumracemosum (L.) Link ssp.racemosum

Syn.:Smilacinaracemosa (L.) Desf.;Vagneraracemosa (L.) Morong

Liliaceae, Herb

false spikenard, false Solomon’s seal (Eng.); smilacine à grappes (Fr.); amwiminigak’ (Maletice); onkôk’akak, onkôk’skak (Abenaki); kinē’wigwŏshk, agongo’simînûn’, cigona’gan (Ojibwa)

Used in bleeding from the mouth [Abenaki: 67].Tea for sore back [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Powdered, placed on a hot stone and fomentation applied to painful body parts or fume inhaled to cure headache or catarrh [Chippewa: 85; Ojibwa: 66, 84]. Decoction taken to treat back pain and other diseases in women [Ojibwa: 47]. Mixed withApocynum androsaemifolium and used to “keep the kidneys open during pregnancy”, to cure sore throat and headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Warm decoction used as a bath to ease rash or itch [Maletice: 65; Ojibwa: 84]. Crushed and applied to cuts to stop bleeding [Ojibwa: 84].

Maianthemumstellatum (L.) Link

Syn.:Smilacinastellata (L.) Desf.

Liliaceae, Herb

star-flowered solomon’s seal (Eng.); smilacine étoilée (Fr.); anungokauh (Ojibwa)

Plants used as a stimulant and system cleanser [Ojibwa: 19].

Malaxisunifolia Michx.

Syn.:Microstylisunifolia (Michx.) BSP

Orchidaceae, Herb

green Adder’s mouth (Eng.); malaxis unifolié (Fr.); aîa’nîkotci’mîn (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used withDiervilla lonicera as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

*Matricaria discoideaDC.Syn.:Matricariamatricarioides auct. non (Less.)Porter

Asteraceae, Herb

pineapple weed, chamomile (Eng.), matricaire odorante, herbe à crapaud (Fr.)

Used for kidney problems [Cree: 93]. Tea drunk to treat insomnia or to calm the nerves, can be sweetened with honey and given in a bottle to calm a fretting baby [Metis: 13]. Tea drunk as a relaxant, also given to new mothers to induce milk flow [Dene: 100].

Flowers: Used to treat eye infections by squeezing the fresh juice directly into the eye [Cree: 13].

Matteuccia struthiopteris(L.) Todaro.

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

fiddlehead fern, ostrich fern (Eng.); matteucie fougère-à-l’autruche (Fr.); kākākīwīkot (Cree)

Fronds: Base of the frond boiled with other herbs to make a decoction drunk to slow a pounding heart, also used to treat stomach pain [Dene: 13]. Decoction made with the base of the stipe of the sterile frond used for back pain and to speed expulsion ot the afterbirth [Cree: 95].

Rhizomes: Stipe buds on rhizome used to treat cancer and to help gain weight [Metis: 13].

*Medicago sativaL.

Fabaceae, Herb

alfalfa, lucerne (Eng.); luzerne, lentine (Fr.)

Above-ground parts:Steeped to make a drink for arthritis or ulcers [Cree: 13]. Tea used in stomach problems, arthritis, and muscular pain [Cree: 96].

Melampyrumlineare Desr.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

narrow-leaved cow-wheat (Eng.); mélampyre linéaire (Fr.); agongasi’mînûk (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Tea taken as an eye medicine [Ojibwa: 87].

*Melilotusofficinalis (L.) Lam.

Syn.: M. albusMedik.

Fabaceae, Herb

yellow sweet-clover (Eng.); mélilot jaune, mélilot officinal, trèfle d’odeur jaune (Fr.)

Whole plant: Boiled with barley seeds to make a decoction drunk as a general tonic [Cree: 13]. Tea used as a tonic and blood cleanser [Cree: 96].

Menispermum canadenseL.

Menispermaceae, Vine

Canada moonseed (Eng.); ménisperme du Canada (Fr.); bîma’kwît wa’bîgons (Ojibwa)

Rhizomes: Used for scrofula [44].

*Menthaaquatica L.

Syn.:M. piperitaL.

Lamiaceae, Herb

peppermint (Eng.); menthe poivrée (Fr.)

Used for sore throat and for kidney troubles in combination with beaver castor [Algonquin: 75].

Leaves: Steeped and used for headache [Algonquians: 63].

Mentha arvensisL.

Syn.:M. canadensis L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

wild mint (Eng.); mente sauvage, baume (Fr.); amisko wehkuskwa, amiskōwīkask, āmskuwiy(h)kusk, wīkask, wīkaskwah, wakaskwah (Cree); pse’skil (Melatice); name’wûckons (Ojibwa); kaakawakamicik (Atikamekw); kâuîpâpinamânapukâshiti nîpîsha (Montagnais); tsátlh’oghtsëné (Chipewyan)

Used as a carminative [Chippewa: 85] or to treat stomachache [Cree: 42, Ojibwa: 86]. Steeped and given at frequent intervals to make a child quieter [Malecite: 65]. Tea drunk to favor sleep [Cree, Metis: 13 ], as wash for sores, as a part of compound medicines for treating cancer or diabetes [Metis: 13], to treat cough or cold [Cree, Dene: 13; Dene: 17], fever [Atikamekw: 73; Montagnais: 71; Cree: 13], congestion, chills, menstrual cramps, to soothe teething babies’ gums or as a tonic, to treat weariness or fatigue, to treat children diarrhoea, or pain [Cree: 13]. Smelled or boiled and the steam inhaled to clear the nasal passages in cold [Cree: 13]. Tea used to prevent the onset of cold or to cure prolonged cold and coughing up blood [Cree: 95].

Whole plant: Tea taken as a blood remedy and against fever [Ojibwa: 87]. Tea used to treat stomach disorders and fever [Cree: 96].

Above-ground parts:Tea used to treat arthritis, muscular pain, sore throats, cough and cold. Steam inhaled for sore throat, cough and cold. Tea used as “women’s medicine” [Cree: 96]. Tea used to treat cough [Chipewyan: 92]. Herbal water used for fever and high blood pressure [Cree: 93].

Flowers: Ground with yarrow flowers, placed in a cloth, moistened and rubbed on infected gums to remove pus. Crushed with flowers ofAchilleamillefolium var.occidentalis, wrapped in a cloth and dipped in water to clean pus from the gums of a teething child [Cree: 95].

Leaves or leafy stem:Ground andapplied to the gums to relieve toothache [Cree: 95].

Leafy stem and flowers:Inserted into the nostril to stop nosebleed [Cree: 95].

*Menthaspicata L.

Syn.:M. viridis L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

spearmint (Eng.); menthe à épis, baume (Fr.); wekemakowemina (Cree)

Leaves: Infusion given in colic [Cree: 74].

Menyanthestrifoliata L.

Menyanthaceae, Herb

buckbean (Eng.); ményanthe trifolié, herbe à canards (Fr.)

Roots: Very strong decoction drunk as a medicine [Algonquians: 63].

Mertensiapaniculata (Aiton) G.Don

Boraginaceae, Herb

lungwort, tall bluebells (Eng.); mertensie paniculée (Fr.); ogu-malask (Cree)

Part of a compound medicine used to treat heart trouble [Metis: 13].

Mirabilisnyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill.

Syn.:Oxybaphusnyctagineus (Michx.) Sweet;Allionianyctaginea Michx.

Nyctaginaceae, Herb

heart-leaved four-o’clock, heart-leaved umbrellawort (Eng.); nyctage parasol (Fr.); goko’coadji’bîk, be’dukadak’igisĭn (Ojibwa)

Roots: Poultice made with a decoction of dried roots or with fresh roots used in sprain or strained muscles [Ojibwa: 47].Used to reduce sprains and swellings [Ojibwa: 87].

Mitchella repensL.

Rubiaceae, Herb

two-eyed Berry, creeper partridge-berry (Eng.); mitchella rampant, pain de perdrix (Fr.); papatigwibagassiwil (Abenaki)

Fruits: Used to treat swellings [Abenaki: 67]. Cooked into a jelly and used for fever [Algonquians: 63].

Mitella nudaL.

Saxifragaceae, Herb

bishop’s cap, naked mitrewort (Eng.); mitrelle nue (Fr.); amiskōcawakayipak, ōcawakāyipak (Cree)

Leaves: Crushed and wrapped in cloth and inserted in the ear to treat earache [Cree: 95].

Monarda fistulosaL.

Lamiaceae, Herb

wild bergamot, horse mint (Eng.); monarde fistuleuse, menthe de cheval (Fr.); mostoswīkask, kapiskotānāskīhk (Cree); moshkōs’wanowins’, weca’wûs wackwî’nek, bibi’gwûnûkûk’

wabino’wuck (Ojibwa)

Tops dried and used as a sternutatory for cold relief, or boiled withEupatorium perfoliatum to make a fomentation to be applied for rheumatism [Chippewa: 85].

Whole plant: Dried, boiled to obtain the volatile oil and inhaled to cure catarrh and bronchial affections [Ojibwa: 87]. Boiled and the decoction drunk by women after childbirth. Mixed with other plants to make a drink for treating menstrual cramps, stomachache, headache and fever [Cree: 13]. Tea used to treat fever, headache, and also used as “women’s medicine” [Cree: 96].

Above-ground parts: Tea used to treat stomach disorders [Cree: 96].

Roots: Decoction used to ease stomach and intestinal pain [Ojibwa: 84].

Roots and flowers: Decoction used against intestinal worms [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers and leaves: Steeped and used in skin eruptions and burns [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves: Chewed and placed in the nostrils to relieve headache [Chippewa: 85].

Monarda punctataL.

Lamiaceae, Herb

spotted beebalm (Eng.); monarde ponctuée (Fr.); ka-bi-sani-gwe-iag (Ojibwa)

Used as rubbing and smelling medicine, and as a remedy for stomach trouble [Ojibwa: 86].

Monesesuniflora (L.) A. Gray

Pyrolaceae, Herb

single delight, one-flowered wintergreen (Eng.); monésès uniflore (Fr.)

Steeped to make a medicine for paralysis [Algonquians: 63].

Monotropa unifloraL.

Monotropaceae, Herb

Indian pipe (Eng.); monotrope uniflore (Fr.); mīpitahmaskīhkīh (Cree)

Juice mixed with water and applied to sore eyes [44].

Flower:Chewed to relieve toothache [Cree: 95].

Morellapensylvanica (Mirb.) Kartesz

Myricaceae, Tree

northern bayberry (Eng.); myrique de Pennsylvanie (Fr.)

Roots:Powdered, steeped in water, and applied for arthritis and rheumatism, or to treat kidney problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves: Steeped in water and the liquid used as a mouth wash for sore mouth [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Myrica galeL.

Myricaceae, Shrub

sweet gale (Eng.); myrique baumier (Fr.); tehgoo (Dene)

Used for sore eyes. Boiled and tea applied to skin rash and sores, or drunk to cure mouth infections and sore throat [Dene: 101].

Stem:Boiled with leaves and fruits and taken to treat tuberculosis[Dene: 98].

Myriosclerotinia caricis-ampullaceae(Nyberg) Buch.

Syn.:Sclerotinia caricis-ampullaceae Nyberg

Sclerotiniaceae, Fungi

mwākōkot (Cree)

Sclerotium:Powdered and taken in water to facilitate labor during childbirth, also used in menstrual irregularity [Cree: 95].

*Nepeta cataria L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

Catnip (Eng.); népéta cataire, herbe à chats (Fr.); gajugĕns’ibûg, tci’name’wûck (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Alone or in combination withPycnanthemum virginianum in a decoction given in fever. Steeped with an equal amount ofTanacetum vulgare and given in fever [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea as a blood purifier [Ojibwa: 87].

*Nicotiana tabacum L.

Solanaceae, Shrub

tobacco (Eng.); tabac (Fr.)

Leaves: Topical coagulant [Mi’kmaq: 61]. Used for tootache [Cree: 81]. Smoke blown into the ear to cure earache [Algonquians: 63, Mi’kmaq: 60, Cree: 81] or into the nostrils for faints [Cree: 81].

Nuphar lutea(L.) Sm

Syn.:N.variegata Durand

Nymphaeaceae, Herb

variegated pond-lily, cow lily, yellow pond lily (Eng.); nénuphar à fleurs panachées, grand nénuphar jaune, pied-de-cheval (Fr.); pwakumosikum, oskotamo, waskātamow, wāskātamo, waskutamo, ōskītīpak, waskītīpak (Cree);uckicteabu (Atikamekw); egh’ke (Dene); teghaizé (Chipewyan)

Rhizomes: Powdered, used in a compound remedy to treat various ailments [Cree: 95]. Cut into thin slices, dried and chewed or made into a tea drunk to treat arthritis or used to bathe affected joints [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92] or to treat swellings [Cree: 13]. Sliced, grated and used as a poultice on boils [Cree, Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92], diabetic skin ulcers [Metis: 13], infected wounds [Cree, Dene, Metis: 13], or mixed with other plants and used as a poultice to treat sore back or legs, foot pain [Cree: 13], sore joints, arthritis, or headache [Metis: 13]. Used in compound decoctions as a cough medicine, to facilitate childbirth [Dene: 13], to help recovery after childbirth [Cree: 13], or as a heart medicine [Cree, Dene: 13]. Poultice used in swellings and infections [Algonquin: 69].Ground withAcorus calamus andHeracleum lanatum, moistened with water or grease and used as a poultice in headache, sore joints, swellings, and painful limbs. Fresh or rehydrated dried slices applied to infected skin [Cree: 95]. Soaked or boiled in water and used as a wash to treat swellings, infections and bee stings [Dene: 17]. Poultice used to treat facial paralysis, skin disorders, bee stings, cuts, burns, arthritis, and muscular pain. Tea used in heart problems and as a “women’s medicine” [Cree: 96]. Boiled with stems ofSorbus scopulina and leaves ofSarracenia purpureato make a cough remedy [Chipewyan: 92].

Roots:Steeped or worn around the neck as a general medicine [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used to treat cold and sore back [Dene: 100].

Whole plant:Used in diabetes [Cree: 77].

Stems: Leafy stems sucked to prevent thirst [Atikamekw: 73]. Tea drunk to cure stomach pain, shortness of breath, heart problems, and urinary tract problems [Dene: 101].

Nupharlutea (L.) Sm. ssp.advena (Aiton) Kartesz & Gandhi

Syn.:N. advena (Aiton) W.T. Aiton

Nymphaeaceae, Herb

cow lily (Eng.); nénuphar à feuilles émergentes (Fr.)

Pounded into a pulp used in a poultice to heal swollen limbs [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves: Mashed and used in swellings [Mi’kmaq: 60; Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Bruised and used in swellings and bruises [Algonquians: 63].

Rhizomes: Used as an astringent [Chippewa: 47].

Nupharlutea (L.) Sm. ssp.polysepala (Engelm.)E.O. Beal

Syn.:N. polysepala(Engelm.) Greene,N. advena Aiton

Nymphaeaceae, Herb

rocky mountain pond-lily, yellow water lily (Eng.); nénuphar à sépales nombreux (Fr.); oga’da mûn (Ojibwa); egh’ke (Dene)

Roots: Grated to make a poultice for sores, or dried, powdered and used to heal cuts and swellings [Ojibwa: 87].

Stems: Tea drunk to cure sore stomach, shortness of breath, heart problems and urinary tract problems [Dene: 101].

Nupharsp.

Nymphaeaceae, Herb

nénuphar (Fr.);mska’tawé (Abenaki)

Used to allay sexual irritability and in spermatorrhea [Abenaki: 67].

Nymphaeaodorata Aiton

Syn.:Castaliaodorata (Aiton) Alph.Wood

Nymphaeaceae, Herb

American white water lily,sweet scented water lily (Eng.); nymphéa odorant, nénuphar blanc, lis d’eau (Fr.); odîte’abûg wa’bîgwûn (Ojibwa)

Plant pounded into a pulp and used as a poultice to heal swollen limbs [Mi’kmaq: 62].Leaves: Paste used for swellings [Mi’kmaq: 60; Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Juice drunk in coughs. Boiled and used as a poultice for swellings [Algonquians: 63]. Used as a cough medicine or to treat tuberculosis [Ojibwa: 87]. Powdered root put in the mouth to treat sore mouth [Ojibwa: 47].

Rhizomes: Decoction used for leucorrhoea. Poultice used for suppurating glands [44].

Oclemenanemoralis (Aiton) Greene

Syn.:Asternemoralis Aiton

Asteraceae, Herb

bog aster (Eng.); aster des bois (Fr.); winĭsĭkĕns (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction drops used in ears to treat soreness [Ojibwa: 47].

Oenothera biennisL.

Onagraceae, Herb

mink plant (Eng.); onagre (Fr.)

Whole plant: Soaked in warm water to make a poultice to heal bruises [Ojibwa: 87].

Bark: Strong infusion drunk in small doses for pain in the bowels [Montagnais: 70].

Oligoneuronrigidum (L.) Small var.rigidum

Syn: Solidagorigida L.

Asteraceae, Herb

goldenrod (Eng.)

Used as an astringent and styptic [Chippewa: 47].

Roots: Decoction used to treat stoppage of urine [Chippewa: 47].

Onocleasensibilis L.

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

sensitive fern (Eng.); onoclée sensible (Fr.); a’nana’ganûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Powdered and used to make a tea given to stimulate milk flow [Ojibwa: 87].

Oplopanaxhorridus (Sm.) Miq.

Syn.:Echinopanaxhorridus (Sm.) Decne. & Planch. ex Harms

Araliaceae, Shrub

devil’s club (Eng.); bois piquant (Fr.)

Used for colds and tuberculosis [Dene: 17].

Roots: Mixed with other plants in a decoction used as a diuretic, to treat diabetes, or to prevent birth [Cree, Metis: 13]. Boiled and taken as a general medicine. Used to wash sores [Dene: 17].

Orthiliasecunda (L.) HouseSyn.:Pyrolasecunda L.

Pyrolaceae, Herb

one-sided wintergreen (Eng.); pyrole unilatérale (Fr.); sasdzaghé (Chipewyan)

Leaves:Mashed with lard and put on a cut to stop bleeding and help healing. Chewed to relieve toothache [Chipewyan: 92].

Osmorhizaclaytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke

Apiaceae, Herb

hairy sweet cicely (Eng.); osmorhize de Clayton (Fr.); osaga’tigom’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Dried, pounded and moistened in warm water and applied to skin ulcers. Dried and chewed or a decoction used to gargle to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Osmorhizalongistylis (Torr.) DC.

Apiaceae, Herb

long-styled sweet cicely (Eng.); osmorhize à long style (Fr.); segedebwens, osaga’tîkûm (Ojibwa)

Roots: Infusion taken for amenorrhea. Decoction used to wash nostrils of a hunting dog whit dulled sense of scent. [Ojibwa: 85]. Tea drunk for sore throat or to facilitate parturition [Ojibwa: 87].

Ostryavirginiana (Mill.) K. Koch

Betulaceae, Tree

hophornbeam (Eng.); ostryer de virginie, bois de fer (Fr.); ma’nanons’ (Ojibwa)

Wood: Decoction used for rheumatic pain or tuberculosis [Ojibwa: 91]. Decoction boiled withThuja occidentalisand used as a cough syrup [Ojibwa: 47, 91]. Wood from the heart of branches boiled and decoction taken in kidney troubles. Mixed withLycopodiumobscurumand twigs ofPicea glauca in a decoction used for steaming stiff joints in rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Oxalismontana Raf.

Oxalidaceae,Herb

wood sorrel (Eng.); oxalide de montagne (Fr.)

Aphrodisiac [55].

Packeraaurea (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve

Syn.:Senecioaureus L.

Asteraceae, Herb

golden ragwort, golden senecio (Eng.); séneçon doré (Fr.)

Used as a remedy for hemorrhages, bruises and in case of abortion [66].

Panaxquinquefolius L.

Araliaceae, Herb

ginseng (Eng., Fr.); ginseng à cinq folioles (Fr.);

Roots: Steeped and taken time to time to increase fertility in women [Algonquians: 63].

Panax trifoliusL.

Syn.:Aralia trifolia Gray

Araliaceae, Herb

dwarf ginseng (Eng.); ginseng à trois folioles, petit ginseng (Fr.); nesō’wakŏk (Ojibwa)

Roots:Chewed and applied to cuts [Ojibwa: 84].

Parmelia sulcataTaylor.

Parmeliaceae, Lichen

shield lichen (Eng.)

Rubbed on the gums of teething babies to relieve discomfort [Metis: 13].

*Pastinacasativa L.

Apiaceae, Herb

wild parsnip (Eng.); panais (Fr.); pigwe’wûnûsk (Ojibwa)

Very small quantity mixed with four other kinds of roots to make a tea for “female troubles” [Ojibwa: 87].

Pedicularis canadensisL.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

wood beteny, Canada pedicularis (Eng.); pédiculaire du Canada (Fr.); mandamî’nîodji’bîkîns (Ojibwa)

Roots: Finely cut and used as an aphrodisiac [Ojibwa: 87]. Used as a remedy for anemia [Chippewa: 85].

Pedicularislanata Cham. & Schltdl.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

woolly lousewort (Eng.); pédiculaire laineuse (Fr.)

Roots: Mixed with tobacco and smoked to relieve headache [Dene: 98].

Penstemonconfertus Douglas ex Lindl.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

lesser yellow beardtongue (Eng.); penstémon à fleurs jaunes (Fr.)

Used as a cough medicine [Chippewa: 47].

Roots: Decoction drunk as a purgative [Chippewa: 47].

Outer bark:Decoction used as a remedy for stomach troubles [Chippewa: 47].

Petasitesfrigidus (L.) Fr. var.palmatus (Aiton) CronquistSyn. :P. palmatus (Aiton) A. Gray

Asteraceae, Herb

palmate coltsfoot (Eng.); pétasite palmé (Fr.)

Steam taken to treat asthma, congested chest or cold [Dene: 100].

Petasitesfrigidus (L.) Fr. var.sagittatus (Banks ex Pursh) Cherniawsky

Syn.: P. sagittatus(Banks ex Pursh) A. Gray

Asteraceae, Herb

arrow-leaved coltsfoot (Eng.); pétasite sagitté (Fr.); piskehte puskwa, nigutinepia, mōsōtawakayipak, yuwskiy(h)tiypuk (Cree)

Cooked withPyrola asarifolia and the mixture used as a wash to treat chickenpox [Dene: 17]. Steam taken to treat asthma, congested chest or cold [Dene: 100].

Leaves: Used as a poultice on skin sores and burns [Metis: 13]. Applied to worms eating the flesh and to itchy skin [Cree: 95]. Put all over the body to treat chickenpox. Poultice wrapped to treat sore knee [Dene: 17]. Wraped on affected area to heal sores and draw out infections [Cree:93].

Leaves and roots: Boiled together and put on measles for healing, decoction drunk “to make babies” [Dene: 17].

Phryma leptostachya L.

Verbenaceae, Herb

lopseed (Eng.); phryma à épis grêles (Fr.); waia’bishkĕno’kŏk (Ojibwa)

Roots:Decoction taken for rheumatic pain in the legs [Ojibwa: 84]. Chewed dry or a decoction used as a gargle to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Physocarpus opulifolius(L.) Maxim.

Rosaceae, Shrub

ninebark (Eng.); physocarpus à feuilles d’obier, bois à sept écorces (Fr.); miskwazi-wušk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Infusion used as an emetic [Chippewa: 85].

Phytolacca americanaL.

Phytolaccaceae, Herb

American pokeweed, pigeon berry (Eng.); phytolaque d’Amérique (Fr.)

Leaves: Chewed and applied to wounds to stop bleeding [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Phytolaccaamericana L. var.americanaSyn.:P. decandra L.

Phytolaccaceae, Herb

common pokeweed, poke berry (Eng.); phytolaque d’Amérique (Fr.)

Roots: Used as an emetic and in rheumatism [44].

Piceaglauca (Moench) Voss

Syn.: P. canadensis (Mill.) BSP.

Pinaceae, Tree

white spruce (Eng.); épinette blanche (Fr.); wapiskimnahik, eyinatik, minuhik, mīnahik, sī(h)ta (Cree); me-naig, gawa’ndag (Chippewa); mzazesso, mskask (Abenaki); minaiku (Montagnais), ts’iivii, ts’iwa (Dene); ts’uchogh (Chipewyan)

Twigs: Tea used as a general medicine [Algonquians: 63]. Steeped to make an antiscorbutic tea [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Tips of branches used to brew a tea to “heal the inside”. Tea used in sudatory by women after childbirth [Algonquin: 69]. Boiled and the vapour taken to fight fever and eye problems [Montagnais: 71], to relieve cold [Dene: 99] or to ease headache [Dene: 101]. Tea used for fever [Montagnais: 71]. Mixed withLycopodiumobscurumand inner part ofOstrya virginiana wood in a decoction used for steaming stiff joints in rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47]. Young twigs chewed to relieve itchy throat [Dene: 99]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Juice from young tree boughs used for sore eyes. Towels soaked in tea and wrapped around a woman’s waist to speed up delivery, to ease afterbirth pain, and to loosen retained placenta [Dene: 101]. Herbal water taken for colds [Cree: 93].

Inner bark: Used as a poultice or boiled to make a wash for decayed teeth, skin sores, and burns [Dene: 17; Chipewyan: 92]. Chewed or drunk as a tea for cough [Algonquin: 69; Montagnais: 71]. Decoction used in a compound arthritis remedy [Cree: 95]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 83]. Chewed to relieve cold or maintain good health, or placed on a wound [Dene: 99]. Used to stop bleeding from cuts [Cree: 81]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Mixed with caribou grease to make a salve for burns [Chipewyan: 92].

Bark: Tea used as a salve [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Steeped and given in tuberculosis [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used as a splint and to heal broken limbs [Dene: 100].

Sap:Used to soothe irritated skin, applied to cuts and mouth infections [Dene: 17, 99]. Applied to chest to prevent cold and tuberculosis. Tea taken to soothe sore throat [Dene: 99]. Applied to stop bleeding from cuts [Dene: 13; 99; Cree: 81]. Boiled and taken in cough. Heated and pressed on blisters [Cree: 80]. Herbal water taken for colds. Heated, mixed with lard, cooled and applied to wound infections [Cree: 93].

Bark and branches:Mixed with red willow bark to treat cold [Dene: 17].

Gum:Used alone or most commonly mixed with rendered fat from a bear, otter, or beaver, or lard or petroleum jelly, and applied as a salve for skin infections, cuts, rashes, burns, persistent sores, and chapped or craked skin [Cree, Dene, Metis: 13; Algonquin: 69]. Chewed and the juice swallowed to treat a sore throat [Metis: 13]. Mixed with grease to make an ointment to treat skin rashes, scabies, persistent scabs and a growing boil [Cree: 95]. Chewed as a laxative [Algonquin: 69]. Applied to throat against cough or on back for pain relief [Montagnais: 71]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree: 82]. Applied in cuts and skin infections [Cree: 80, 81]. Used to treat gum disease, cuts, skin rashes, tea drunk for stomach ailments [Dene: 100]. Smeared on painful areas of the body, boiled and gargled to cure toothaches, used as an ointment for sores and placed on a wound to stop bleeding, boiled and tea drunk for colds and coughing [Dene: 101]. Warm and applied to cuts, boils or sores [Cree: 79]. Poultice used to treat skin disorders, bee stings, cuts and burns [Cree: 96]. Warmed up and put in infections [Dene: 13]. Used to treat sore throat [Dene: 100].

Rotten wood: Powdered and used as baby powder or to treat skin rashes [Cree: 94, 95].

Cones: Used to make a medicine for excessive urination [Abenaki: 67]. Used to make a jelly to treat headache and stomachache [Algonquin: 75]. Boiled and water used to wash itchy skin, or drunk against intestinal problems [Montagnais: 71]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree: 82].

Leaves: Used as an inhalant or fumigator [Ojibwa: 87]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree: 82]. Powder used as a compress for aches and pains [Cree: 80, 81]. Cushed, placed on cloth and put in throat to treat pain and burns [Cree: 80].

Roots and bark: Tea used for stomach pain, fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86].

Gum and bark: Used for cough [Montagnais: 71].

Cones and branches:Tea used for cough and colds, sore throat and chest pain [Dene: 99].

Roots: Pounded and boiled to make a liquid medicine [Dene: 99].

Young tips, cones and branches: Boiled and taken to treat itchy throat [Dene: 99]. Steam used to treat congested head and chest [Dene: 100].

Wood:Inside strips put on burns, boiled without bark and taken for sore throat [Cree: 79].

Piceamariana (Mill.) BSP.

Pinaceae, Tree

black spruce (Eng.); épinette noire (Fr.); ithināhtik, minahik, setakwunatik, pekewatik, mīthawapakōnuk, mistikōpikī (Cree); kaawaataak (Ojibway); Say-say-gah-dag , jingwûp (Chippewa); a’mikwan’dŏk (Ojibwa);ushkâtuku (Montagnais); ts’iivii, ędzò (Dene); el (Chipewyan)

Used for a sudatory after childbirth [Algonquin: 69].

Twigs:Boiled to make a broth for cough [Algonquin: 63] or to produce steam that relieves cold [Dene: 99]. Tips or buds peeled and eaten to prevent breathing shortness, heart problems, and high blood pressure [Cree: 13]. Decoction used to treat sore eyes [Dene: 101; Dene, Metis: 13]. Tips used to make a tea for “healing the inside” [Algonquin: 69]. Tea used against fever [Montagnais: 71]. Yound twigs chewed to relieve itchy throat [Dene: 99]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Boiled and steamed to cure congestion or cold and to ease headache. Towels soaked in tea and wrapped around a woman’s waist to speed up delivery, to ease afterbirth pain, and to loosen retained placenta [Dene: 101].

Gum: Applied as a salve for skin infections, cuts, boils, rashes, burns, sores, and chapped or craked skin [Dene: 13, 100; Cree: 13, 79, 80; Algonquin: 69]. Mixed with grease to make an ointment to treat skin rashes, scabies, persistent scabs and bad burns [Cree: 95].Chewed to prevent breathing shortness, also good for the heart [Cree: 13]. Soaked in hot water and used to treat infected cuts and wounds [Cree: 13]. Chewed and applied to a sore ear or to treat stomach ache [Cree: 13]. Boiled until it turns pink and then cooled to make an ointment to draw the infection out of cysts [Cree: 13] or to treat infected wounds, rashes, scabs on the head or chiken pox [Cree: 13]. Used as a laxative [Algonquin: 69]. Used for cuts and back pain [Montagnais: 71]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Used to treat gum disease, tea drunk for stomach ailments [Dene: 100]. Smeared on painful areas of the body, boiled and gargled to cure toothache, used as an ointment for sores and placed on a wound to stop bleeding. Boiled and tea drunk for cough and cold [Dene: 101]. Used to treat sore throat [Dene: 100].

Sap:Blood medicine, used to soothe irritated skin, applied to cuts and mouth infections [Dene: 13; 99]. Applied in chest to prevent colds and tuberculosis, tea taken to soothe sore throats [Dene: 99]. Applied in cuts and sore breasts [Cree: 81].

Bark and branches:Mixed with red willow bark to treat cold [Dene: 13].

Wood:Powdered and used as baby powder [Dene: 13].Inside strips put on burns, or boiled without bark and taken for sore throats [Cree: 79].

Charcoal: Used as a baby powder [Dene: 13].

Cones: Young cones boiled to make a mouth wash for mouth infection, toothache or sore throat or to clear phlegm from the throat [Dene, Metis: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Chewed to relieve toothache or sore mouth. Mixed with other plants in a decoction to treat venereal disease [Cree: 95]. Made into a jelly used to treat headache and stomachache [Algonquin: 75]. Decoction used to gargle a sore throat or mouth infection [Cree: 95; Dene: 101]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 77; 83], diarrhoea [Ojibway: 89; Cree: 95] and stomach ache [Montagnais: 71]. Applied to stop bleeding. Boiled and tea used to wash broken legs, to easeskin rash [Dene: 101].

Leaves and bark:Decoction used for headache [Ojibwa: 66].

Leaves: Used as a reviver [Ojibwa: 87] or to treat diabetes [Cree: 82]. Crushed and used to treat pain. Crushed, placed on cloth and put in throat to treat pain and burns [Cree: 80].

Bark and roots: Tea used for stomach pain, fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86].

Inner bark: Chewed for laryngitis [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Chewed to relieve colds or maintain good health, placed on a wound [Dene: 99]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Bark and gum: Used against cough [Montagnais: 71].

Cones and branches:Tea used for cough and colds, sore throat and chest pain [Dene: 99].

Roots: Pounded and boiled to make a liquid medicine [Dene: 99].

Young tips, cones and branches: Boiled and taken to treat itchy throat [Dene: 99]. Steam used to treat congested head and chest [Dene: 100].

Bark: Used as a splint and to heal broken limbs [Dene: 100]. Boiled and taken in cough Heated and pressed on blisters [Cree: 80].

Picearubens Sarg.

Pinaceae, Tree

red spruce (Eng.); épinette rouge (Fr.)

Bark: Boiled with roots of sour grass and the liquid drunk for lung and throat trouble [Algonquians: 63].

Piceasitchensis (Bong.) Carrière

Pinaceae, Tree

Sitka spruce, tideland spruce (Eng.); épinette de Sitka (Fr.)

Cones:Boiled and decoction taken internally for pain in the chest [Sikani: 97].

Inside bark: Scraped and chewed for cough [Sikani: 97].

Needles:Chewed and saliva applied to external sores [Sikani: 97].

Gum: Applied with a stick to the white spots on the eye [Sikani: 97].

Piceasp.

Pinaceae, Tree

spruce (Eng.); épinette (Fr.); cigubi (Atikamekw) sĕ’ssēgân’dŏk (Ojibwa)

Gum: Used as a poultice on wounds [Atikamekw: 73], boils and abscesses [Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Used for sewing [Ojibwa: 84; Atikamekw: 73].

Pinus banksianaLamb.

Pinaceae, Tree

jack pine (Eng.); pin gris (Fr.); ōskāhtak, ivashick (Cree); Ookiik, gîga’ndag (Ojibway); ushtshishk (Montagnais); goo (Dene)

Inner bark: Used to make a poultice to heal a deep cut [Cree: 95] or to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Cones and inner bark: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 83].

Bark: Mixed with bark and root ofSalix discolor, Pinus strobus, Quercus rubra andArctostaphylos uva-ursiin a tea given in fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86]. Rubbed on a sore body part or boiled and tea drunk to cure shortness of breath [Dene: 101].

Sap:Used for burns [Ojibway: 89] and cuts [Dene: 17]. Chewed to treat cold [Cree: 93].

Leaves: Used as a reviver [Ojibwa: 87].

Twigs: Crushed and mixed with lard and applied for allergies and itching [Montagnais: 71]. Tea mixed with sugar and put into sore eyes. Tea drunk to ease pain, cold, and as a general remedy. Tea also applied to a sore body part [Dene: 101].

Pinuscontorta Douglas ex Louden

Pinaceae, Tree

lodgepole pine (Eng.); pin tordu (Fr.); ōskāhtak, oskatik (Cree)

Inner bark: Softened in water and used as a poultice to heal a deep wound [Metis: 13].

Gum:Chewed and saliva swallowed for cough and cold [Sikani: 97].

Roots:Boiled and liquid used to clean wounds [Dene: 98].

Pinus resinosaAiton

Pinaceae, Tree

red pine (Eng.); pin rouge (Fr.); pōkgwĕ’nagēmŏk, abakwanûg i’mûg (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Crushed and applied to relieve headache. Vapour or fumes from heating inhaled to cure headache [Ojibwa: 84]. Crushed withPinus strobus leaves, boiled and applied to relieve headache [Ojibwa: 66].

Pinussp.

Pinaceae, Tree

pine (Eng.); pin (Fr.); cigawk (Atikamekw)

Inner part of the tree boiled and pulp applied to cuts [Cree: 80].

Inner bark:Steeped in boiling water and applied to the chest for cold [Atikamekw: 73].

Pinus strobus L.

Pinaceae, Tree

white pine (Eng.); pin blanc (Fr.); zhingwâk’ (Ojibwa); kah-be-sah-dah-ge-set, jîngwak kweseskwe’tûk (Chippewa); kohah’sis (Abenaki).

Tea used in kidney or urinary trouble [Mi’kmaq: 60].

Bark, needles and twigs: Tea used in cold and cough [Mi’kmaq: 43, 60].

Bark: Boiled, mixed with grease and applied to wounds. Tea used in kidney troubles [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Steeped and used to treat cough [Abenaki: 67] and cold [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Mixed with bark and root ofSalix discolor, Pinus strobus, Quercus rubra andArctostaphylos uva-ursiin a tea given in fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86].

Inner bark: Boiled and given for sores, swellings [Algonquians: 63].

Pitch: Mixed with deer tallow and used as a poultice for felons and similar inflammations [Chippewa: 85].

Needles: Crushed and applied to relieve headache. Boiled, and the vapour inhaled to cure backache. Fume produced by heating inhaled to cure headache [Ojibwa: 84]. Crushed withPinus resinosa needles, boiled and applied to relieve headache [Ojibwa: 66]. Powdered and used as a reviver or inhalant [Ojibwa: 87].

Gum:Boiled and drunk for sore throat, cold and consumption [Algonquians: 63].

Wood: Mixed with inner bark ofPrunus serotina andPrunus americana in a decoction used to treat cuts and wounds [Ojibwa: 47].

*Plantago majorL.

Plantaginaceae, Herb

common plantain, whiteman’s foot (Eng.); plantain majeur, grand plantain queue de rat (Fr.); muchikwanas, paswēpak (Cree); ceca’gûski’bûge sink , gine’biwûck (Ojibwa); magaskisitan (Atikamekw); ondiba’go (Abenaki)

Stem: Base boiled and drunk to relieve fainting spells [Metis: 13].

Leaves: Chewed into a paste applied to burns and scalds. Juice drunk for toothache and earache or for internal hemorrhage or injury [Cree: 74]. Soaked in warm water and applied to bruises, sprains or sores as a poultice, also used to sooth burns, scalds, bee stings, and snake bites [Algonquin: 69; Ojibwa: 87]. Applied fresh on wounds, bruises, burns and haematoma [Atikamekw: 73]. Infusion drunk to treat heart trouble [Cree: 13, 96], cramps, stomachache, stomach flu, or constipation [Metis: 13]. Used for rheumatism, swellings and as an analgesic [Abenaki: 67]. Used as a poultice to remove poison and heal wounds [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Mixed with grease and applied to inflamed skin. Mixed with roots ofAsarum canadense to treat inflamed skin. Decoction applied to rheumatic joints [Ojibwa: 47]. Poultice used as a painkiller for cuts and bruises [Dene: 100]. Fresh leaves heated slightly and put on the wound to draw out infection [Cree: 93].

Leaves and root:Chopped finely and applied to bites of poisonous reptiles, or applied as a poultice on inflamed skin [Ojibwa: 47].

Above-ground parts:Tea used to soothe burns [Dene: 100].

Platantheradilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex Beck var.dilatata

Orchidaceae, Herb

tall white bog orchid, scentbottle (Eng.); platanthère dilatée (Fr.)

Roots: Juice drunk in gravel [Algonquians: 63].

Platantheradilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex Beck var.leucostachys (Lindl.)Luer

Syn.:Habenarialeucostachys (Lindl.) S. Watson

Orchidaceae, Herb

Sierra bog orchid (Eng.); platanthère à tige pâle (Fr.)

Used as a cough medicine. Decoction used as a body wash. W/hen heated used as a bath for rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Platantheraorbiculata (Pursh) Lindl.

Syn.:Habenariaorbiculata (Pursh) Torr.

Orchidaceae, Herb

roundleaved orchis (Eng.); habénaire à feuilles orbiculaires (Fr.)

Leaves: Applied to the hands or feet to cure blisters [Algonquians: 63].

Poa palustrisL.

Poaceae, Herb

swamp meadow-grass, fowl bluegrass (Eng.); pâturin palustre (Fr.)

Seed heads: Boiled to make a rinse used to make the hair grow thicker and longer [Dene: 13].

Podophyllum peltatumL.

Berberidaceae, Herb

mayapple (Eng.); podophylle pelté, pomme de mai (Fr.)

Roots: Used as cathartic [44]. Powdered and used for liver troubles [Cree: 74].

Polygalapolygama Walter

Polygalaceae,Herb

milkwort, pink polygala (Eng.); polygala polygame (Fr.)

Boiled and used as a cough medicine [Algonquians: 63].

Polygala senegaL.

Polygalaceae, Herb

seneca snakeroot (Eng.); sénéca (Fr.); menisehkes, mesisikas, ominisihkes, sīkōtākanīsīkan, wenisikas, wīnsīkas, wīncīkēs (Cree); winis’sikēns’, bi’jikiwûck’ (Ojibwa)

Used as a tonic [Ojibwa: 47] or as a general medicine [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Powdered and added to other plants and used to treat many ailments [Cree: 95]. Chewed and the juice swallowed to treat a sore throat. Crushed and mixed with another plant to make a poultice applied to cuts [Cree: 13]. Mixed with other plants and used as a heart medicine and blood purifier [Metis: 13]. Roots crushed or chewed to treat toothache or sore mouth [Cree: 13, 95]. Dried and chewed for cold [Malecite: 65]. Decoction for cough and cold [Ojibwa: 84]. Mixed withArtemisia frigida, Astragalus crassicarpus, andRosa arkansana in a decoction taken internally for convulsions or applied to wounds to stop bleeding [Ojibwa: 47]. Sucked and juice swallowed to treat tooth ache, sore throat, cough and cold. Poultice used to treat skin disorders, bee stings, cuts and burns [Cree: 96].

Leaves: Infusion taken for sore throat [Ojibwa: 84].

Polygonatumbiflorum (Walter) Elliot

Liliaceae, Herb

giant Solomon’s seal (Eng.); sceau-de-Salomon géant (Fr.); nanîbîte’ode’kîn (Ojibwa)

Roots:Used as a physic. Tea used for cough [Ojibwa: 87].

Polygonatumbiflorum (Walter) Elliot var.commutatum (Schult. & Schult. f.) Morong

Syn.: P. commutatum (Schult. & Schult. f.)A. Dietr.

Liliaceae, Herb

giant Solomon’s seal (Eng.); sceau-de-Salomon géant (Fr.); nebnegodek (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used to prevent measles [Ojibwa: 85]. Decoction sprinkled on hot stones and the smoke inhaled to treat hadache [Ojibwa: 47].

Polygonatum pubescens(Willd.) Pursh.

Liliaceae, Herb

hairy Solomon’s seal (Eng.); sceau-de-Salomon pubescent (Fr.); onkôk’skak (Abenaki)

Used to stop bleeding from mouth in women [Abenaki: 67].

Polygonum amphibiumL.

Polygonaceae, Herb

water smartweed, amphibious knot-weed (Eng.); renouée amphibie (Fr.); kāmithkwacōāhtik, kistōtīwīcīpihk (Cree)

Roots: Applied fresh on mouth blisters. Powdered with other plants to treat various ailments [Cree: 95].

*Polygonum hydropiper

L.

Polygonaceae, Herb

marshpepper knotweed, water pepper (Eng.); renouée poivre-d’eau (Fr.)

Leaves: Dried and used to make a tea for dropsy [Malecite: 65].

Polygonum muhlenbergii(Meisn.) Wats.

Polygonaceae, Herb

long-root smartweed, swamp persicaria (Eng.); renouée émergée (Fr.); agongo’simînûn (Ojibwa)

Tea used to cure stomachache [Ojibwa: 87].

Polygonum pensylvanicumL.

Polygonaceae, Herb

Pennsylvania smartweed (Eng.); renouée de Pennsylvanie (Fr.); pebigumskike (Ojibwa)

Tops steeped and the infusion taken as a cure for epilepsy [Ojibwa: 85].

*Polygonum persicariaL.

Polygonaceae, Herb

lady’s thumb (Eng.); renouée persicaire (Fr.)

Flowers and leaves: Decoction taken in stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Polygonum punctatumElliot

Polygonaceae, Herb

interrupted smartweed (Eng.); renouée ponctuée (Fr.); ojig’imĭn (Ojibwa)

Flowers and leaves: Decoction taken in stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Polypodiumvirginianum L.

Syn.:P. vulgare auct. non L. p.p.

Polypodiaceae, Herb

rock polypod, parasitic sword fern (Eng.); polypode de Virginie, tripe de roche (Fr.); tcetcgwi’zek’ (Malecite); kākākīwīkoc, kāthīthīkipakākī, kinīpikōtīthanīwīpak (Cree); otatakwakanak (Atikamekw); Achiniu thistabi (Innu)

Used for stomach troubles [Abenaki: 67], or against kidney and neuralgic diseases [Atikamekw: 73]. Tea used to treat digestive tract problems [Algonquin: 68], heart diseases [Algonquin: 69], as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases [Innu: 72].

Roots:Steeped and given in pleurisy [Malecite: 65].

Leaves: Decoction taken as a tuberculosis cure [Cree: 95].

Polyporus resinosus (Schrad.) Fr.

Polyporaceae, Fungi

fungi (Eng.); polypore (Fr.)

Conks boiled and used as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Polyporussp.

Polyporaceae, Fungi

polypore (Fr.)

Used for “female troubles” [Algonquians: 63].

Polystichumacrostichoides (Michx.) Schott

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

christmas fern (Eng.); polystic faux-acrostic (Fr.) ktciutcetckuk (Malecite)

Roots: Chewed in hoarseness [Malecite: 65].

Fronds: Soaked in cold water and pounded to treat body pain [Algonquians: 63].

Pontederia cordataL.

Pontederiaceae, Herb

pickerel weed, lake herb (Eng.); pontédérie cordée (Fr.); waladawi’ga (Malecite)

Brewed and taken in general illnesses [Algonquians: 63]. Steeped and used to prevent pregnancy [Malecite: 65].

*Populus albaL.

Salicaceae, Tree

white poplar (Eng.); peuplier blanc (Fr.); ah-sah-te (Ojibwa)

Bark and roots: Tea used for internal blood diseases [Ojibwa: 86].

Populus balsamifera L.

Salicaceae, Tree

balsam poplar, black poplar (Eng.); peuplier baumier, peuplier noir, liard (Fr.); ma-saté, mah-nah-sah-te (Chippewa); metos, mayi metos, mayi-mītos, maymiytos, māthamītos, osīmisk (Cree); ewebibu’k (Malecite); man’asa’dĭ, asa’di (Ojibwa); t’oo, t’ooladzé (Dene)

Used for internal blood diseases [Ojibwa: 86].

Buds: Gathered unopened in early spring and boiled to extract the balsam, skimmed off and then boiled with bear fat to make a salve applied to frost-bitten members and on sores and inflamed wounds [Chippewa: 85]. Gathered in the spring and steeped in very hot bathwater until a layer of extract forms on the surface and the water is cool enough to bathe in, and also rubbed on afflicted areas to treat skin diseases such as eczema or psoriasis [Cree, Metis: 13]. Collected in the spring to make a tea taken for cold [Dene: 99]. Rubbed on the gums of a teething baby, or a cooled infusion used to rinse the baby’s mouth [Dene: 13]. Rubbed on a sore tooth [Cree: 13]. Decoction drunk to treat heart problems [Cree: 13]. Boiled for 41 minutes with trembling aspen branch bark and the decoction given to treat diabetes [Cree: 13]. Gathered in the spring to make salve [Algonquin: 69]. Applied directly to the nostril to stop nosebleed [Cree: 95]. Smashed with roots ofArctium lappa and applied to sores [Malecite: 65]. Seeped before opening and used as a poultice in sprain or strained muscles, or boiled in grease, strained and kept for use when needed [Ojibwa: 47]. Cooked in lard or bear fat, cooled and used as a salve on cuts, wounds or bruises, also rubbed inside nostrils to clear congestion from cold, catarrh or bronchitis [Ojibwa: 87]. Steam used to treat nasal and chest congestion caused by cold [Dene: 100].

Sap:Drunk to treat diabetes and high blood pressure [Cree, Metis: 13]. Used on cuts [Dene: 99]. Boiled and tea drunk to ease chest pain Smeared on a painful body part [Dene: 101].

Bark and sap: Used to make a tea for asthma in children [Cree, Metis: 13].

Bark: Mixed with another plant in a decoction given in seizures [Cree: 13].

Leaves: Applied fresh to a sore [Cree: 95]. Chewed and applied to insect stings and bites [Dene: 100].

Roots: Scrapings steeped in hot water and used as a poultice on open sores and infected wounds [Algonquin: 69]. Decoction made with equal portion of roots ofCirsiumsp. taken internally to treat weakness and back pain in women. Mixed with roots ofPopulus tremuloides, steeped and given to slow heavy menstrual flow [Ojibwa: 47].

Inner bark: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77]. Boiled and taken to treat stomach problems [Dene: 98].

Catkins: Boiled and rubbed on swollen areas. Tea drunk for breathing problems [Dene: 101].

Rotten wood: Powdered and used for skin rash [Dene: 101].

Populusdeltoides Bartram ex Marsh. ssp.monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwalder

Syn.:P. monilifera Aiton

Salicaceae, Tree

cottonwood (Eng.); peuplier deltoïde (Fr.); mâ’nâsâ’ti (Ojibwa)

“Cotton” applied to open sores as an absorbent [Ojibwa: 84].

Populusgrandidentata Michx.

Salicaceae, Tree

poplar (Eng.); peuplier à grandes dents (Fr.); mutoos (Cree); asadi (Ojibwa)

Used to prevent pregnancy [Cree: 76].

Young roots: Tea used as a hemostatic [Ojibwa: 87].

Bark: Infusion given to ease and lessen the menses [Cree: 76].

Populussp.

Salicaceae, Tree

poplar (Eng.); peuplier (Fr.)

Burned and ashes put on boils and abscesses [Cree: 80, 81].

Bark:Decoction used in cough [Cree: 42]. Dried, boiled and drunk for ringworm [Cree: 80].

Inner bark: Eaten in the spring, considered a mild purgative [Cree: 42]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 83].

Dry wood:Ash mixed with boiled water and taken for urinary infections. Also used as poultice [Cree: 79].

Gum: Drops put into eyes to treat snow blindness [Cree: 80].

Populus tremuloides Michx.

Salicaceae, Tree

quaking aspen, trembling aspen (Eng.); peuplier faux-tremble, tremble (Fr.); mi’tuc, mitesh (Montagnais); asa’dĭ (Ojibwa); metos, miytos, wapisk-mītos, wasī-mītos, mistik, mītos, mitosinipiah (Cree); asawdeobuk (Atikamekw); os’sagakwé, wawabibagw (Abenaki); t’ooladzé (Dene); k’es (Chipewyan)

Tea used for rheumatism, cold and stomachache [Innu: 72].

Sap: Drunk for worms [Algonquin: 68; Montagnais: 70]. Boiled and drunk as a blood medicine [Dene: 17].

Bark: Used to treat venereal disease [Cree: 95]. Decoction or tea drunk as a vermifuge [Abenaki: 67; Algonquians: 63; Algonquin: 68; Montagnais: 70], to treat stomach disorders, or diabetes [Cree: 96]. Steeped and used for cold [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Small squares placed under the tongue to treat a stomachache or against blood spitting [Cree: 13]. A strip about the length of the human heart cut at heart height on the south side of a mature tree is chewed and the juice swallowed as a heart medicine [Cree: 13]. Small strip of fresh green bark chewed and swallowed for relief from food poisoning or diarrhoea [Metis: 13]. Infusion drunk to treat cancer and diabetes [Cree: 13]. Decoction drunk to treat stomachache, diarrhoea [Cree: 13], fever and cough [Dene: 13]. Mixed with buds ofPopulus balsamifera in a decoction drunk to treat diabetes [Cree: 13]. White “dust” on the bark (crustose lichens and dead tree periderm) applied to cuts and wounds to stop bleeding [Dene: 13] or used as a styptic [Cree: 95]. Boiled and used in boils [Algonquin: 75]. Chewed and applied to cuts as a poultice [Chippewa: 47; Ojibwa: 87].

Inner bark: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77], as a laxative or cough remedy [Cree: 66].Boiled and used as a tonic [55]. Poultice used on sore arm or leg [Ojibwa: 87]. Chewed and juice swallowed to treat heart problems [Cree: 96]. Used to cover wounds to stop bleeding [Cree: 93].

Leaves: Chewed or crushed fresh and applied to bee or wasp stings [Cree: 95; Cree, Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92], or on mosquito bites or cuts [Cree: 13]. Boiled and drunk as a medicine [Dene: 17].

Buds: Used for toothache [Cree: 13].

Seeds: Eaten to cause an abortion [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Roots: Steeped with roots ofPopulus balsamifera and given to slow heavy menstrual flow [Chippewa: 47]. Grated and boiled into a sirup for rheumatisms and numb articulations [Atikamekw: 73].

Rotten wood: Powder used for skin rash [Dene: 101].

Potentillaanserina L.Syn.:Argentinaanserina (L.) Rydb.

Rosaceae, Herb

common silverweed (Eng.); potentille ansérine (Fr.)

Whole plant: Tea drunk as a coagulant, to heal cuts and sores [Dene: 100].

Potentilla arguta Pursh

Syn.:Drymocallisarguta (Pursh) Rydb.

Rosaceae, Herb

tall cinquefoil (Eng.); potentille âcre (Fr.); gĭ’tciöde’imĭnĭdji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction used for dysentery. Powdered and pricked into the temples or placed in the nostrils to relieve convulsions. Dried, moistened, pulverized and applied to cuts [Ojibwa: 47].

Potentillanorvegica L. ssp.monspeliensis (L.) Asch. & Graebn.

Syn.:P. monspeliensis L.

Rosaceae, Herb

Norwegiancinquefoil (Eng.); potentille de Norvège (Fr.); tcode’imînaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Used as a physic [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots and stalk: Chewed or a decoction used to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Prenanthesalba L.

Asteraceae, Herb

Lion’s foot, white lettuce (Eng.); prenanthe blanche (Fr.); dado’cabodji’bĭk, weca’wûs wa’ckwînêsk (Ojibwa)

“Milk” used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Powdered and put in a broth used in confinement [Ojibwa: 47]. Used as a “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87].

Prosartestrachycarpa S. Watson

Syn.: Disporum trachycarpum(S. Wats.)Benth. & Hook. f.

Liliaceae, Herb

rough-fruited fairybells (Eng.); prosartès à fruits rugueux (Fr.)

Whole plant: Mixed with another plant and drunk as a spring tonic [Metis: 13].

Prunella vulgaris L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

selfheal, heal-all (Eng.); prunelle vulgaire, brunelle, herbe au charpentier (Fr.); name’wûskons’, basi’bûgûk (Ojibwa)

Used in sore throat [Cree: 42]. “Women medicine” [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves: Tea used for fever [Algonquin: 69].

Roots:Used in compound medicine as a “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction combined with catnip and taken as a physic [Ojibwa: 47].

Prunusamericana Marsh.

Rosaceae, Tree

wild plum (Eng.); prunier d’Amérique (Fr.); bogēsanōk, bû’gesana’tig (Ojibwa)

Bark and roots: Crushed and boiled with the roots of other plants as a remedy for diarrhoea [Ojibwa: 84].

Bark: Used as a disinfectant [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Decoction used against intestinal worms [Ojibwa: 47].

Inner bark:Mixed with the trunk of a youngPinus strobus and the inner bark ofPrunus serotina in a decoction used to treat cuts and wounds [Ojibwa: 47].

Prunus nigraAiton

Rosaceae, Tree

Canada plum (Eng.); prunier noir, prunier sauvage (Fr.)

Inner bark: Tea drunk in cough [Algonquin: 69].

Prunus pensylvanicaL.f.

Rosaceae, Tree

pine cherry, bird cherry, fire cherry (Eng.); cerisier de Pennsylvanie, petit merisier (Fr.); pusawemina, pasisāwimin, pāsuwiymayātik (Cree); maskwetzi’minak (Maletice); kusigwa’kumi’nŏk, bae’wimînûn (Ojibwa); wesagatuk (Atikamekw); apueiminanatuk, apueiminânakashî (Montagnais)

Mixed withTaxus canadensis in a tea used for rheumatism [Algonquin: 69].

Bark, fruits, leaves, and roots: Tea taken in fever [Metis: 13].

Bark:Tea taken to treat bronchitis, cough and blood poisoning [Algonquin, Cree: 69; Innu: 72]. Steeped and taken in erysipelas [Malecite: 65]. Compress used on swellings and sprain [Montagnais: 71].

Bark and branches: Paste, sometimes mixed withSorbus americana used for problems in shoulders, joints, nerves and heart [Montagnais: 71].

Inner bark: Infusion to treat sore eyes [Cree: 95]. Used on cuts, a tea drunk for colds, and boiled to a jelly used to treat burns [Algonquin: 75]. Used for cough [Ojibwa: 87; Montagnais: 71].

Wood: Dried without bark and used in prickly heat or chafed skin [Malecite: 65].

Roots: Decoction given for stomach pain or disorders [66; Ojibwa: 84]. Grated and boiled in water to make a syrup applied to umbilical cord [Atikamekw: 73]. Herbal water to treat whooping cough [Cree: 93].

Fruits:Eaten raw to fight cough [Montagnais: 71].

Leaves or twigs: Used to fight cough [Montagnais: 71].

Prunus serotina Ehrh.

Rosaceae, Tree

rum cherry, black cherry (Eng.); cersier tardif (Fr.); we’kwanum (Malecite); ikwe’mîc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Steeped and drunk for cough [Algonquians: 63, Mi’kmaq: 60]. Used in cough and cold [Mi’kmaq: 61]. Steeped in water, added to beaver castor and a little gin and given in cough and cold, and consumption in men [Maletice: 65]. Tea as a remedy for cough and cold [Mi’kmaq: 62; Ojibwa: 87]. Part of a compound medicine for small pox [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Fruits: Steeped to make a bitter tonic [Algonquians: 63, Mi’kmaq: 60, 62].

Inner bark:Applied to external sores, an infusion is also given to relieve pain and soreness of the chest [44; Ojibwa: 84]. Mixed with the trunk of a youngPinus strobus and the inner bark of a youngPrunus americana in a decoction used to treat cuts and wounds. Boiled and the water used as a wash to treat scrofula. Decoction used as a disinfectant [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Decoction against intestinal worms and cholera [Ojibwa: 47]. Powdered and applied to skin ulcers. Mashed fresh and used as a poultice [Ojibwa: 47].

Prunussp.

Rosaceae, Tree

red cherry (Eng.)

Bark: Steeped and the liquid drunk to prevent high blood pressure [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots: Decoction applied to skin ulcers or on painful women breasts [Ojibwa: 47].

Prunus virginiana L.

Rosaceae, Tree

chokeberry (Eng.); cerisier de virginie, cerisier à grappes (Fr.); sisan’wewi’nakânsh’, a’sasawe’mînaga’wûnj (Ojibwa); takwahīmināna, takwēhiminān, tākwuhiymin (Cree); Pisheshueminatuk (Innu)

Bark: Steeped and drunk in diarrhoea [Algonquians: 63, Mi’kmaq: 60, Cree: 42]. Boiled to make an emetic drink to relieve stomach ache [Cree: 13]. Decoction used as a hair ointment, or mixed with roots ofVeronicastrum virginicum and taken before breakfast to treat scrofula [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea used as a purgative and emetic [Cree: 96]. Herbal water taken for cold [Cree: 93].

Inner bark: Steeped with roots ofCorylussp. and white oak, and the heart ofOstrya virginiana wood and taken to treat lung hemmorhages. Decoction used for sore throat, stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 47], or diarrhoea [66]. Tea used for lung trouble [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves, stem, bark, and roots:Tea used for colds, fevers, pneumonia [Cree, Metis: 13; Innu: 72], to clear phlegm from the throat, or for high blood pressure or heart problems [Cree: 13].

Branchlets:Used to make a drink taken during gestation [Ojibwa: 84].

Roots: Part of a compound medicine for diarrhoea in children [Cree: 13]. Mixed withAcorus calamus and given for cough or blood poisoning [Algonquin: 69]. Herbal water taken against flu [Cree: 93].

Fruits:Used as anastringent [Ojibwa: 47] or to treat diarrhoea [66].

Prunus virginianavar.demissa(Nuttall) Torrey

Syn: Prunusvirginiana L. var.melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Sarg.

Rosaceae, Shrub

western chokecherry, black chokecherry (Eng.); cerisier du Pacifique (Fr.)

Roots:Tea used to treat stomach disorders [Cree: 96].

Pteris aquilinaL.

Pteridaceae, Herb

brake (Eng.); fougère-aigle (Fr.); ana’ganûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used to alleviate cramps in the stomach [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Dried and smoked upon live coals to relieve headache [Ojibwa: 87].

Pterissp.

Pteridaceae, Herb

brake (Eng.) fougère (Fr.)

Fronds: Used to make a bed for weak babies or old people [Mi’kmaq: 60; Algonquians: 63].

Pulsatillapatens (L.) Mill. ssp.multifida (Pritz.) Zamels

Syn.:Anemonepatens L.,P. hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton

Ranunculaceae, Herb

prairie pasqueflower, cutleaf anemone (Eng.); pulsatille multifide (Fr.);gogeda’djibûg (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Powdered and smelled to treat headache [Ojibwa: 47]. Used as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and neuralgia [44].

Pycnanthemumvirginianum (L.) T. Dur.& B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald

Syn.:Koelliavirginiana (L.) MacMill.

Lamiaceae, Herb

Virginia mountainmint (Eng.); pycnanthème verticillé (Fr.); name’wûckon’ (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Decoction made with equal parts ofNepeta cataria given in fever [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Powdered and made into a decoction for amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47].

Pyrola asarifoliaMichx.

Pyrolaceae, Herb

asarum-leaved wintergreen (Eng.); pyrole à feuilles d’asaret (Fr.); sasdzaghé (Chipewyan); amiskowehtawakewuskos, amiskōtawakayipak, miskīsikōmaskī(h)kīh, wāwipak (Cree)

Decoction taken to stop blood coughing [Cree: 95].

Leaves: Mashed with lard and put on a cut to stop bleeding and promote healing [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Chewed to relieve toothache [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Decoction used as a diuretic to treat severe back pain from kidney trouble including kidney stones and urinary tract blockage or scanty urination [Dene: 13]. Infusion used to treat sore eyes [Cree: 95].

Pyrolaasarifolia Michx. ssp.asarifolia

Syn.: P. uliginosa Torr.& A. Gray ex Torr.

Pyrolaceae, Shrub

wintergreen (Eng.); pyrole des marais (Fr.)

Cooked withPetasites sagittatus and the mixture used as a wash to treat chickenpox [Dene: 17].

Leaves: Used for gonorrhea, kidney trouble and for blood spitting. Decoction drunk for several ailments [Algonquians: 63].

Pyrolaelliptica Nutt.

Pyrolaceae, Herb

waxflower shinleaf (Eng.); pyrole elliptique (Fr.)

Roots: Boiled and drunk for weakness [Algonquians: 63].

Pyrolagrandiflora Radius

Pyrolaceae, Herb

arctic pyrola, arctic wintergreen (Eng.); pyrole à grandes fleurs (Fr.)

Leaves:Crushed and a warm poultice used to relieve pain caused by burns or for arthritic or joint pain or pain from cuts [Dene: 100].

Quercus alba L.

Fagaceae, Tree

white oak (Eng.); chêne blanc (Fr.); mītig’ōmish’ (Ojibwa)

Acorns:Used to promote thirst [Mi’kmaq: 62, 60] or as a cure for ulcers [Algonquians: 63].

Bark: Steeped and drunk for bleeding piles [Algonquians: 63]. Root bark and inner bark of the trunk of this and other oaks used in a decoction for diarrhoea [44; Ojibwa: 84].

Quercusmacrocarpa Michx.

Fagaceae, Tree

bur oak (Eng.); chêne à gros fruits (Fr.); mî’tîgo’mîc (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Extract used in lung trouble and chest pain [Chippewa: 91]. Mixed with inner bark of Quercus rubraandPopulus tremuloides, root, bud and blossom ofPopulus balsamifera and root ofPolygala senaga in a decoction used for heart troubles [Ojibwa: 47].

Bark:Used as an astringent, to bandage a broken foot or leg [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction used as a laxative [91].

Roots: Decoction taken to treat cramps [Ojibwa: 47].

Quercus rubra L.

Fagaceae, Tree

red oak (Eng.); chêne rouge (Fr.); wabeik emkwanimozi (Malecite); wisug’emitig’omish’, me-te-ko-mesh,mîtîgo’mîc , wi’sugi’mĭtĭgo’mĭc(Ojibwa)

Bark: Steeped in water with buds or young cones ofAbies balsameaandTsuga canadensis and given in diarrhoea [Malecite: 65]. Tea prepared with bark and root ofSalix discolor, Pinus strobus, Pinus banksiana andArctostaphylos uva-ursi given in fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86]. Used for heart troubles and bronchial affections [Ojibwa: 87].

*Ranunculus acrisL.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

buttercup, tall buttercup (Eng.); renoncule âcre, bouton d’or (Fr.)

Used against cancer [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Leaves,flowers or fruits: Crushed and inhaled for headache [Abenaki: 67; Algonquin: 68; Montagnais: 60; Mi’kmaq: 60].

Rhexia virginicaL.

Melastomaceae, Herb

Virginia meadow beauty, vigenar wood (Eng.); rhéxie de Virginie (Fr.)

Leaves and stems: Made into a brew to clean the throat and used as a sour drink [Algonquians: 63, Mi’kmaq: 60].

Rhinanthus minorL.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

little yellow rattle (Eng.); petit rhinanthe (Fr.)

Used to treat fits and epilepsy [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Rhododendron groenlandicum(Oeder) K.A. Kron & W.S. Judd Syn.:Ledumgroenlandicum Oeder

Ericaceae, Shrub

Labrador tea; Hudson’s Bay tea (Eng.); thé du Labrador (Fr.);muskeegobug,muckig’obûg (Ojibway); muskekopukwa, muskekopakwa, muskakopukwu, maskīkowāpoy, maskēkopakwa, maskēkopakwatī, tīmaskīk (Cree); pusipga’skill (Malecite); jabak (Abenaki); îkûta (Montagnais); miluepuk (Innu); lidu masgit, gots’ago (Dene); nágodhi (Chipewyan)

Medicinal tea [Cree: 94; Innu: 72].Used for head colds [Abenaki: 67]. Diuretic. Decoction used to treat pneumonia and, mixed withAcorus calamus, whooping cough [Cree: 95]. Tea drunk by women to facilitate childbirth [Algonquin: 68]. Used in nosebleeds [Ojibway: 89]. Decoction used to prevent hair loss or to treat eye infections [Cree: 13]. Steeped and used for kidney troubles [Malecite: 65]. Tea drunk in rheumatic complaints, to strengthen the stomach, relieve headhache and promote perspiration. Powder applied to gangrenes, contusions, and excoriations [Cree: 78]. Used in arthritis, or muscle pain. Tea drops put on abscesses. Broth applied in sore mouth. Tea taken as an energy drink [Cree: 81]. Used to treat cold [Dene: 100]. Boiled with fireweed and the tea drunk to speed up child birth [Dene: 101].

Whole plant: Mixed with another plant in a decoction drunk to treat cold or chest pain [Cree: 13]. Boiled and liquid used as a disinfectant for wounds and skin sores. Tea used for urinary tract problems [Cree: 80, 81].

Leaves: Decoction or infusion taken as a diuretic [Cree: 76; Algonquians: 63]. Steeped to make a tonic tea [Algonquians: 63]. Fresh leaves chewed and applied to wounds [Cree: 42].Either chewed and the juice swallowed or made into a tea and drunk to treat stomach flu and diarrhoea [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92], chills and bad breath [Cree: 13]. Tea with other herbs taken to treat cold, infants teething pain, as a system cleanser [Cree: 13]. Tea given to nervous people to relieve tension, and powdered leaves applied to burns, or wet eczema [Dene: 13]. Decoction drunk and leaves wrapped in a cloth and applied to the head to treat migraine. Decoction drunk to treat a burning sensation during urination. Applied to wounds [Cree: 13]. Steeped and drunk as a general medicine, as a tonic, or against kidney problems [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used as a tonic [Chippewa: 88]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 82, 83]. Poultice applied to burns and scalds. Grated and used against headache [Algonquin: 68]. Mixed with grease or pitch to make an ointment applied to burns, itchy skin, sores on hands, and chapped skin including cracked nipple to which a leaf is applied directly. Mixed with fish oil and applied to the umbilical scab to promote healing. Powdered and applied directly to a baby’s skin to treat rashes in the skin folds [Cree: 94, 95]. Chewed and juice swallowed to treat cold and sore throat Boiled and compress used to treat fever [Cree: 81]. Tea drunk in diarrhoea, arthritis, chest pain and back ache [Cree: 80]. Tea used to treat headache [Dene: 98]. Herbal water taken for heart and kidney problems. Dried, crushed, mixed with lard and applied to burns. Boiled and used to soak affected parts to treat arthritis [Cree: 93].

Leaves and twigs: Steeped and drunk for chill or to purify blood [Algonquians: 63]. Tea used as a tonic, in cold and headache [Algonquin: 69]. Macerated or prepared into a decoction to fight urinary tract problems. Dried and put into a hot wet towel and used as a compress for children urinary tract problems [Montagnais: 71]. Decoction cooled and used to soak joints affected by arthritis [Cree: 13]. Tea taken for stomach pain, diarrhoea, headache and cough [Cree: 81].

Roots: Decoction used to treat cold and clean the stomach [Cree: 13]. Tea drunk to treat chest pain [Dene: 101].

Rhododendron tomentosum HarmajaSyn.: Ledumpalustre L. ssp.decumbens (Aiton) Hultén

Ericaceae, Shrub

northern Labrador tea (Eng.); petit thé du Labrador (Fr.); lidu masgit, gots’ago (Dene); nágodhi (Chipewyan)

Tea taken for cold [Dene: 100].

Leaves: Boiled and drunk as a tea for stomach problems [Dene: 17; Chipewyan: 92] or headache [Dene: 98]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Leaves, stem and flowers: Tea used for good health. Steam from tea used to clear congested nasal passages [Dene: 99].

Roots: Tea drunk to cure chest pain [Dene: 101].

Rhus aromaticaAiton

Anacardiaceae, Shrub

white sumac, fragrant sumac (Eng.); sumac aromatique (Fr.); bŏkkwan’ībŏk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken to cure diarrhoea [Objiwa: 84].

Bark and fruits: Used in medicinal ceremonies [Ojibwa: 86].

Rhus copallinumL.

Anacardiaceae, Tree

shining sumac, winged sumac (Eng.); sumac brillant (Fr.)

Fruits and bark: Medicinal [Mi’kmaq: 61].

Rhus glabraL.

Anacardiaceae, Tree

smooth sumac, dwarf sumac (Eng.); sumac glabre (Fr.); pakwan-mins, bakwa’nak, maki’bûg (Ojibwa)

Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86]. Boiled and poured into the ear to treat earache [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Decoction used in dysentery [Ojibwa: 47].

Bark: Tea used as a hemostatic [Ojibwa: 86].

Inner bark: Used in combination with other planst as an astringent [Ojibwa: 86].

Flowers: Steeped and used for sore eyes [Ojibwa: 86]. Chewed to cure sore mouth. Drink taken as a remedy for asthma [Ojibwa: 85].

Leaves: Used in poultices [Ojibwa: 86] or to wash sore mouth [Ojibwa: 85].

Fruits:Used as a throat cleanser [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Steeped to make a drink to treat cold or used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 85].

Rhus typhinaL.

Syn.:R. hirta (L.) Sudw.

Anacardiaceae, Tree

staghorn sumac (Eng.); sumac vinaigrier (Fr.); sla’nimus (Malecite); bakwanâtig, bakwana’tîg (Ojibwa)

Used in sore throat [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Fruits and leaves: Crushed and prepared as a gargle for sore throats [55].

Roots: Used to stop haemorrhaging [Ojibwa: 86], or mixed with other plants for rheumatism [Algonquin: 69].

Flowers:Decoction taken to treat stomach pain [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots and fruits: Steeped and taken as a blood purifier, or mixed with blackberry root, mountain holly, orange-red lily root and mountain raspberry root and used for consumption or for cough and fever [Malecite: 65].

Ribesamericanum Mill.

Grossulariaceae, Shrub

wild black currant, American black currant (Eng.); gadellier d’Amérique (Fr.)

Whole plant:Herbal water taken to induce menses and to treat diabetes [Cree: 93].

Ribesglandulosum Grauer

Grossulariaceae, Shrub

skunk currant (Eng.); gadellier glanduleux (Fr.); mīthicīmin (Cree); wabos’odji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Stems: Used alone or withRubus idaeus to make a decoction given to prevent blood clotting after birth [Cree: 95].

Roots: Decoction taken in back pain and “women diseases” [Ojibwa: 47].

Ribeshudsonianum Richardson

Grossulariaceae Shrub

northern black currant (Eng.); gadellier de la Baie d’Hudson (Fr.)

Roots: Boiled with other plants to make a drink for cold [Dene: 13].

Stems: Mixed withRibes oxycanthoides in a decoction used to treat sickness after childbirth [Cree: 95]. Decoction with leaves and flowers taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Roots and bark: Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Ribes lacustre(Pers.) Poir.

Grossulariaceae, Shrub

swamp gooseberry (Eng.); gadellier lacustre (Fr.); kâkuminânakashî (Montagnais)

Bark: Tea drunk as a treatment for diarrhoea and cold [Metis: 13].

Leaves: Tea drunk to prevent miscarriages [Metis: 13].

Roots: Tea used against diarrhoea or blood in feces [Montagnais: 71].

Ribes oxyacanthoidesL.

Grossulariaceae, Shrub

Canada gooseberry (Eng.); groseiller du Nord, groseillier hérissé (Fr.); sapoominak, sāpōmin, sābuwmin (Cree); cabo’mĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa); daghochį (Dene); daghósjíé (Chipewyan)

Roots: Decoction drunk to stimulate menstruations [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92].

Stems: Steeped in boiling water and the tea drunk by mothers after childbirth to stop excessive bleeding [Metis: 13]. Mixed withRibes hudsonianum in a decoction used to treat sickness after childbirth [Cree: 95]. Boiled and tea drunk to cure mouth infections, sore stomach and to relieve shortness of breath. Solution also used for sore eyes [Dene: 101].

Fruits: Decoction used to treat weakness and back pain in women [Ojibwa: 47].

Ribestriste Pall.

Grossulariaceae, Shrub

wild red currant (Eng.); gadellier amer (Fr.); mîci’tcimînûk, cigagwa’tĭgon (Ojibwa); eneeyù’ (Dene)

Whole plant:Tea used for stomach problems [Dene: 99].

Leaves: Used to prepare “female remedy” [Ojibwa: 87]. Applied to burns [Dene: 100].

Roots and stalk: Decoction used to treat gravel [Ojibwa: 47].

Stalk: Mixed with roots ofAralia racemosa andAralia nudicaulis in a decoction taken in amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47].

Bark:Herbal water used to induce menses[Cree: 93].

Rosa acicularisLindl.

Rosaceae, Shrub

prickly rose (Eng.); églantier, rosier aciculaire (Fr.); kaminakuse, okīnīak, okwāminalwasiāhtik, okinīwapīgwīnīwa, ogiminakasiatik, ōginīatik, owkiniy, owkāmnekusiy, ōkinī (Cree); dabhà (Dene); íntsólé (Chipewyan)

Branches: Boiled to make a decoction drunk to relieve excessive menstruation [Cree: 13].

Roots: Decoction given to children to treat diarrhoea, used as eye drops to treat soreness such as from snow blindness [Cree, Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Infusion used to treat sore eyes [Cree: 95, 96]. Boiled and taken as a cough medicine [Cree: 95; Dene: 98]. Herbal water taken to correct irregular menses and to treat chest cold [Cree: 93].

Flowers: Eaten raw to prevent or treat cold and fever, petals used as a heart tonic [Dene: 13]. Petals boiled, strained and used as eye drops or as an eye wash to remove dirt and infection [Dene: 99, 100]. Also used for heat rash and cuts [Dene: 99]. Boiled and tea drunk to cure mouth infections, sore stomach, shortness of breath and cough [Dene: 101]. Petals chewed and applied to bee stings [Dene: 98].

Leaves:Chewed and put on bee stings to prevent swelling and release poison [Dene: 17].

Fruits:Boiled and drunk as a tea to treat cold and to loosen up the chest [Dene: 17]. Eaten fresh to treat summer cold Also good for the heart [Dene: 99].

Rosaarkansana Porter

Rosaceae, Shrub

wild prairie rose (Eng.); rosier des prairies (Fr.); bi’jikiwi’ginĭg (Ojibwa)

Roots: Mixed with the roots of other plants (Solidago juncea, Polygala senega, Artemisia frigida, andAstragalus crassicarpus) in a decoction taken internally for convulsions. Mixed withArtemisia frigida, Astragalus crassicarpus andPolygola senega in a decoction used on wounds to stop bleeding [Ojibwa: 47].

Rosablanda Aiton

Rosaceae, Shrub

wild rose (Eng.); rosier inerme, rosier sauvage, églantier (Fr.); o’ginīk (Ojibwa)

Used to prevent scurvy [55].

Roots: Infusion in lukewarm water applied to inflamed eyes [Ojibwa: 84].

Fruits: Skin used for stomach trouble and indigestion [Ojibwa: 87].

Flowers: Powdered and used to relieve heart-burn [Ojibwa: 87].

Rosasp.

Rosaceae, Shrub

wild rose (Eng.); rosier sauvage (Fr.); kenukatia-mins, ogĭni’mĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Roots: Mixed with the roots of blackberry and blueberry in an infusion taken for diarrhoea [Ojibwa: 85]. Crushed, steeped in water, and the decoction used as an eye-wash [44; Sikani: 97].

Inner bark: Soaked in warm water and squeezed over the eyes [Ojibwa: 47].

Rosavirginiana Mill.

Rosaceae, Shrub

Virginia rose, dwarf wild rose (Eng.); rosier de Virginie (Fr.); oginī’minagan’mŏs, oki-ni-mi-nah-gash (Ojibwa)

Roots:Infusion in hot water applied to sore eyes [Ojibwa: 84].

Roots and bark: Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Rosawoodsii Lindl.

Rosaceae, Shrub

woods’ rose (Eng.)

Leaves:Chewed and put on bee stings to prevent swelling and release poison [Dene: 17].

Fruits:Boiled and drunk as a tea to treat cold and to loosen up the chest [Dene: 17].

Rubus allegheniensisPorter

Rosaceae, Shrub

wild blackberry (Eng.); mûrier, ronce alléghanienne (Fr.); tetéga-min, o’dataga’gomic (Ojibwa)

Roots:Mixed with roots of blueberry and a species of wild rose, steeped in water to make a tea as a remedy for diarrhoea, also steeped to make a medicine to correct the condition of a pregnant woman threatened with miscarriage because of overexertion or a similar cause [Chippewa: 85]. Mixed with staghorn sumach, mountain holly, orange-red lily root and mountain respberry and used in consumption, cough and fever [Malecite: 65]. Tea for arresting flux [Ojibwa: 87].

Stem: Tea used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Rubus chamaemorusL.

Rosaceae, Herb

cloud berry (Eng.); ronce petit-mûrier, plaquebière, chicoutai (Fr.); nakàl, gors’okà (Dene)

Mixed with staghorn sumach, blackberry root, mountain holly, orange-red lily root and used in consumption, cough and fever [Malecite: 65].

Leaves: Crushed and applied to burns, insect bites, and bee stings [Dene: 100].

Flowers: Boiled and tea applied to sore eyes [Dene: 101].

Berries: Chewed and placed on wounds and sores [Dene: 101].

Rubusfrondosus Bigelow

Rosaceae, Herb

black berry (Eng.); ronce de Brainerd (Fr.); oda’tagago’mĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken in amenorrhoea, or mixed with inner bark ofQuercus macrocarpa in a decoction taken for lung trouble [Ojibwa: 47].

Rubus idaeusL.

Rosaceae, Herb

raspberry (Eng.); framboisier, ronce du mont Ida (Fr.); anosh’kanek, ayooskunak, ayuwskun, uyooskan, ayōsikan, athōskunatikwah, athōskan (Cree); meskwa’mînaga wûnj (Ojibwa); mikominatuk, miskiwimin (Atikamekw); alushikanatuk (Innu); ts’eenakal (Dene); tthekálhjíé (Chipewyan)

Berries:Taken as a heart medicine [Dene: 17].

Leaves: Tea used to give strength to women giving birth and to aid the process [Metis: 13].

Stem:Dried and boiled to make a decoction for treating fever [Cree: 13].

Roots: Cooled decoction used as eye drops to treat soreness such as from snow blindness [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Tea from root bark used to heal sore eyes [Ojibwa: 87]. Boiled with birch inner bark and the vapor inhaled to treat asthma [Cree: 13]. Tea used against diarrhoea [Algonquin: 69; Innu: 72]. Boiled and used to treat bloody urine [Atikamekw: 73].

Runners: Steeped and the liquid taken for stomach problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots and stem: Mixed with other plants in a decoction used as a drink for children with diarrhoea, or used to wash skin infections [Cree, Dene: 13]. Decoction used to treat teething pain, to help women recover after childbirth, and to slow menstrual bleeding [Cree: 95].

Leaves and fruits: Used as a tonic and diarrhoea remedy [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Stem and leaves:Tea drunk to treat diarrhoea [Dene: 100].

Rubusidaeus L. ssp.strigosus [Michx.) Focke

Syn.:R. strigosusMichx.R. idaeus L. var.melanolasius (Dieck) R.J. Davis

Rosaceae, Shrub

wild red raspberry (Eng.); framboisier sauvage (Fr.); mĭs’komĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Infusion given in cholera and dysentery as an astringent and tonic [Cree: 74].

Roots and stem:Boiled and used for measles [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots: Decoction used in dysentery. Inner bark of roots soaked in water and squeezed over eyes to treat eye problems [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea used for stomach problems [Cree: 96]. Boiled with the roots ofEquisetum pratenseand taken for stomach problems [Dene: 98].

Rubus occidentalisL.

Rosaceae, Herb

wild black raspberry (Eng.); ronce occidentale, mûrier (Fr.); kadem-sku-min, makadē’wĭskwi’minŏk , oda’tagago’mĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Roots: Boiled and used as an eye wash for sore eyes [Ojibwa: 85]. Decoction taken in stomach pain,Rubus idaeus sometimes used as a substitute [Ojibwa: 84]. Decoction used for stomach and bowel troubles [Ojibwa, Penobscot: 66]. Decoction given in back pain and “women diseases” [Ojibwa: 47].

Rubuspubescens Raf. var.pubescens

Syn.: R. triflorus Richardson

Rosaceae, Herb

dwarf raspberry (Eng.); ronce pubescente, catherinettes (Fr.); wabimi’ndgak atho’sis wimi’nol (Malecite)

Steeped with wild strawberry and given in irregular menstruation [Malecite: 65].

Rubussp.

Rosaceae, Herb

blackberry (Eng.); mûre (Fr.); saptewemi’nus (Malecite); assasawemin, otatakahomin (Atikamekw)

Steeped and given at frequent intervals to treat diarrhoea [Malecite: 65].

Runners: Steeped and given for stomach problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Twigs: Scraped to make a tea taken against bronchitis [Atikamekw: 73].

Rudbeckia laciniataL.

Asteraceae, Herb

cutleaf coneflower (Eng.); rudbeckie laciniée (Fr.); gi’zûswe’bigwa’ĭs (Ojibwa)

Roots:Mixed with equal amounts ofCaulophyllum thalictroidesroots in a decoction taken in indigestion [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers: Mixed withAgastache anethiodoraand Solidago altissimato make a poultice applied to burns [Ojibwa: 47].

Rumexaltissimus Alph. Wood

Polygonaceae, Herb

tall dock, pale dock (Eng.); patience élevée (Fr.)

Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Rumex aquaticusL.

Polygonaceae, Herb

western dock, yellow dock (Eng.); patience occidentale, doche (Fr.); osaw ochepihk, pikwataskōpīwāhtik (Cree)

Whole plant: Decoction used as a wash to treat joint pain [Metis: 13].

Roots: Bruised or crushed and used in sores and abrasions [Ojibwa: 44]. Root bark chewed and applied to serious wounds to stop bleeding and promote healing [Metis: 13]. Used to treat high blood pressure and heart ailments [Dene: 13].

Rumexarcticus Trautv.

Polygonaceae, Herb

arctic dock (Eng.); patience arctique (Fr.)

Leaves:Tea used as a skin wash [Dene: 100].

Roots:Tea used as a skin wash [Dene: 100].

*Rumex crispusL.

Polygonaceae, Herb

curled dock (Eng.); patience crépue, rumex crépu (Fr.); o’zabetshi’wĭk, ci’obûg , oza’widji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped withConioselium chinense, Chimaphila umbellate and Tsuga canadensisand given in bladder problems [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Bruised or crushed and applied to abrasions and sores [Ojibwa: 84]. Powdered, moistened, spread on a cloth and applied as a poultice for skin itching and eruptions. Pounded and applied to cuts and skin ulcers. Poultice applied to swellings [Ojibwa: 47]. Used to heal cuts [Ojibwa: 87].

*Rumexobtusifolius L.

Polygonaceae, Herb

bitter dock (Eng.); patience à feuilles obtuses, rumex à feuilles obtuses (Fr.); oza’widji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Used on cuts and ulcers [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Steeped and applied to skin eruptions [Ojibwa: 47].

Rumex orbiculatusA.Gray

Polygonaceae, Herb

water-dock (Eng.); patience orbiculaire, rumex orbiculaire (Fr.); pikwataskōpīwāhtik (Cree)

Whole plant: Decoction applied to painful joints [Cree: 95].

Rumexsalicifolius Weinm. var.mexicanus (Meisn.) C.L. Hitchc.

Syn.:R. mexicanus Meisn.

Polygonaceae, Herb

narrow-leaved dock (Eng.); rumex mexicain (Fr.); pikwataskōpīwāhtik (Cree)

Whole plant: Decoction applied to painful joints [Cree: 95].

Rumexsp.

Polygonaceae, Herb

dock weed (Eng.); patience, rumex (Fr.)

Rhizomes: Used as a laxative [Cree: 74].

Sagittaria cuneataSheldon.

Syn.:S. arifolia Nutt. ex J.G. Sm.

Alismataceae, Herb

arrowhead (Eng.); sagittaire cunéaire (Fr.); wapato (Algonquin); wabasi (Ojibwa); deníeke (Chipewyan)

Remedy for indigestion [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Applied fresh as a poultice to inflamed skin caused by scrofula [Cree: 13]. Poultice used in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96].

Roots: Used against tuberculosis [Algonquin: 69]. Medicinal [Chipewyan: 92].

Sagittarialatifolia Willd.

Alismataceae, Herb

arrowhead (Eng.); sagittaire latifoliée (Fr.); muj’ota’bûk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and taken in indigestion [Ojibwa: 47].

Salix bebbianaSarg.

Salicaceae, Shrub

willow (Eng.); saule de Bebb (Fr.); nepise, nepiseatik, wekope, atikwupamuk, nīpīsīs, nīpīsī, nīpīsīah, nīpīsīgībī, nīpīstakwah (Cree)

Inner bark: Decoction alone or mixed with another plant to treat diarrhoea and stomachache [Cree: 13]. Chewed and applied to deep cuts [Cree: 95].

Twigs: Decoction taken to treat a toothache [Cree: 13].

Roots: Peeled, boiled, and the decoction drunk to relieve fatigue and provide strength. Applied to aching teeth [Cree: 13].

Salixcandida Flueggé ex Willd.

Salicaceae, Shrub

hoary willow (Eng.); saule tomenteux (Fr.); sisi’gewe’mĭsh (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction made with thick inner bark of roots taken for cough [66; Ojibwa: 84].

Salix cordata Michx.

Salicaceae, Shrub

willow (Eng.); saule à tête laineuse (Fr.); kinoze’s (Maletice)

Bark: Placed in hot water, removed, greased, and applied to blister. [Malecite: 65].

Salix discolorMuhl.

Salicaceae, Shrub

pussy willow (Eng.); saule discolor, chatons (Fr.); nīpisī (Cree); wigubi (Atikamekw)

Inner bark: Infusion taken to cure diarrhoea [Cree: 95]. Powdered and mixed with boiling water to obtain a paste applied to sore throat [Atikamekw: 73].

Bark and roots: Tea prepared with bark and root ofPinus banksiana,Pinus strobus,Quercus rubra andArctostaphylos uva-ursigiven in fainting and fits [Ojibwa: 86].

Roots: Tea given in stomach troubles, fainting and trembling [Ojibwa: 86]. Boiled until thick and used to treat skin cancer, taken internally to treat kidney ailments [Mi’kmaq: 62].Twigs: Infusion used to activate lactation after childbirth [Atikamekw: 73].

Salixfragilis L.

Salicaceae, Tree

crack willow (Eng.); saule fragile (Fr.); sizigo’bamîc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Used as an astringent, as a styptic and poultice for sores [Ojibwa: 87].

Salix lucida Muhl.

Salicaceae, Tree

squaw bush, red willow, shining willow (Eng.); saule brilliant (Fr.); mûckigo’bamîc, zigo’bamîc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Infusion drunk to stop vomiting and remove bile from the stomach [Montagnais: 70]. Smoked to relieve asthma. Steeped to make a mash to be put in a bandage on the head for headache. Poultice used to heal sores and stop bleeding from cuts [Ojibwa: 87]. Used to treat mouth sores, sores around the eyes and chest colds [Cree: 80].

Salixnigra Marsh.

Salicaceae, Tree

black willow (Eng.); saule noir (Fr.); sepastikoos (Cree)

Bark: Used fresh as an astringent, haemostatic, tonic, or diuretic [Cree: 74].

Roots:Poultice used in bruises, sprains, and broken bones [Algonquians: 63].

Leaves: Bruised in hot water and used in sprains and bruises [Algonquians: 63].

Salixplanifolia Pursh

Syn: Salixplanifolia Pursh ssp.planifolia

Salicaceae, Shrub

tea-leaved willow, diamond-leaved willow, flat-leaved willow (Eng.); saule à feuilles planes (Fr.); waskayabaduk (Cree)

Bark:Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Salixpedicellaris Pursh

Salicaceae, Shrub

bog willow (Eng.); saule pédicellé (Fr.); sizigo’bamîc (Ojiwe)

Bark: Used to treat stomach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Salixsp.

Salicaceae, Tree

willow, osier (Eng.); saule (Fr.); uapineumitshimatuk (Innu); uâpineu-mîtshima (Montagnais); ozĭ’sĭgo’bimĭc (Ojibwa); k’aii, k’ak (Dene)

Chewed and the saliva applied to external sores. White powdery tops chewed for cough [Sikani: 97]. Used in eye diseases [Abenaki: 67]. Compress used to soothe toothache [Innu: 72]. Heated and used for toothache. Dry willow split into halves and rolled on painful arthritic joints. Tea from dry willow placed in sore eyes and inhaled to cure headache [Dene: 101].

Bark:Steeped and drunk in quantities for cold [Algonquians: 63]. Used to treat cuts [Algonquin: 75]. Boiled until it turns to a thick paste, then placed in a towel and used locally as a compress for swells, back pain and other types of body pain (e.g. sprains). Tea used in cough [Montagnais: 71]. Bark from young shoots wrapped around a cut like a bandage [Dene: 99].Tea drunk to cure urinary tract and stomach problems [Dene: 101]. Boiled and applied to back to treat back paralysis [Cree: 93].

Inner bark: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 82, 83]. Decoction taken in indigestion [Ojibwa: 47]. Inner bark from young shoots made into a poultice and used as a pain-killer on wounds [Dene: 99]. Tea used in stomach problems [Cree: 96].

Roots: Poultice used in bruises, sprains, and broken bones [Algonquians: 63]. Used in dysentry [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves: Bruised in hot water and used in sprains and bruises [Algonquians: 63]. Decoction applied to arthritis and swells [Montagnais: 71]. Crushed or chewed and applied to bee stings and other insect bites, burns, rashes, cuts, and toothache [Dene: 99].

Bark and leaves:Poultice used to treat pain or to relieve insect bites [Dene: 100].

Branches:Decoction taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Sambucusnigra L. ssp.canadensis (L.) R. Bolli

Syn.:S. canadensis L.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

common elder, elderberry (Eng.); sureau du Canada, sureau blanc (Fr.); pipigwe-minan (Chippewa)

Bark: Used as an emetic and physic [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Tea used as an emetic and laxative [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Steeped and taken as an emetic and physic [Chippewa: 85].

Flowers: Dried and used to make a tea drunk as a diaphoretic [66].

Sambucus racemosaL.

Caprifoliaceae, Tree

red-fruited elder, red elderberry (Eng.); sureau rouge, sureau pubescent (Fr.); peskigdjila’nimus (Malecite); papaskatcîksi’gana’tig (Ojibwa); mishtukusha (Montagnais)

Bark: Decoction taken internally as a purgative [Sikani: 97]. Steeped in water with round wood and given as an emetic [Malecite: 65]. Used as a purgative or emetic [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Used to make a medicinal tea [Ojibwa: 86].

Inner bark: Boiled and the liquid drunk for constipation [Ojibwa: 87].

Trunk: Boiled to obtain a decoction used for urinary problems [Montagnais: 71].

Sanguinaria canadensisL.

Papaveraceae, Herb

bloodroot (Eng.); sanguinaire du Canada, sang-dragon (Fr.); pe’kniasuk’ (Maletice); meskwi-jibik, mĭs’kodji’bĭk (Ojibwa); pabakan’hilangn, papagakanilhôk (Abenaki)

Used as an abortive [Abenaki: 67] or as a blood medicine [Ojibwa: 86]. Juice used in wound infection [Mi’kmaq: 61].

Rhozomes: Used as a tonic [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Used to cure sore throat [Ojibwa: 87] or prevent bleeding [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Chewed for heart trouble [Algonquin: 69]. Steeped in water and given in consumption, applied to cuts, and taken for bleeding piles [Malecite: 65]. Steeped and given for tuberculosis [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Mixed withCaulophyllum thalictroides in a decoction taken to treat stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 47].

Rhizomes and roots:Used as an irritant, narcotic, nauseant and emetic [Ojibwa: 88].

Sanguisorba canadensisL.

Rosaceae, Herb

American great burnet (Eng.); sanguisorbe du Canada (Fr.); nishtshikâta (Montagnais)

Root bark: Dried and used to prepare a tea for cough [Montagnais: 71].

Sanicula canadensisL.

Apiaceae, Herb

Canada sanicle, Canada black snakeroot (Eng.); sanicle du Canada (Fr.); mûkûd’widji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Powdered, used to make a decoction taken for amenorrhoea. Mixed withCaltha palustris in a decoction taken in confinement [Ojibwa: 47].

Sanicula marilandica L.

Apiaceae, Herb

black snakeroot (Eng.); sanicle du Maryland (Fr.); midwiminigak atho’sis wimi’nol (Malecite); masan (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and given in irregular menstruation [Malecite: 65]. Used as a poultice on cure snake bites. Tea used to cure fevers [Ojibwa: 87].

Saniculaodorata (Raf.) K.M. Pryer & L.R. Phillippe

Syn.:S.gregaria E.P. Bicknell

Apiaceae, Herb

black snakeroot (Eng.); sanicle grégaire (Fr.); wabimi’negakathosiswimi’nal (Malecite)

Roots: Steeped with spikenard and given in kidney trouble [Malecite: 65]. Used for rheumatism, irregular menstruation and slow parturition; also used against snake bites [44].

Sarracenia purpureaL.

Sarraceniaceae, Herb

pitcher plant (Eng.); sarracénie pourpre, sabot, oreille de cochon, petits cochons, herbe crapaud (Fr.); alk tsotaco’, alicotache, anîtshikâta (Montagnais); ayekitas, ayikitās, ayīkicās, athīkacās (Cree); omakakiwidass (Ojibwa); arikitcakotepik (Atikamekw); makikiotache (Algonquin); ts’ëlitili (Chipewyan)

Steeped and drunk for blood spitting and kidney troubles [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Used against tuberculosis [Mi’kmaq: 62] or lower back pain [Cree: 95]. Decoction used to treat various wounds [Algonquin: 68].

Whole plant: Steeped and taken in consumption [Malecite: 65]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77, 82, 83]. Boiled and water used to wash burns and skin infections [Montagnais: 71].

Leaves: Boiled to make a tea used in urinary difficulties [Algonquin: 69] or as a wash for sores and for children’s rashes, the same ailments can also be treated by applying a split leaf on the affected parts [Montagnais: 70]. Steeped and used in smallpox [Algonquians: 63; Montagnais: 70]. Used for chronic chest trouble, cough [Dene: 13] and “women’s ailments” [Cree, Dene: 13]. Part of a compound medicinal tea taken to ease childbirth [Algonquin: 69; Cree: 13]. Decoction or infusion taken to remedy sickness associated with amenorrhoea [Cree: 95]. Tea medicinal [Chipewyan: 92]. Herbal water taken in fever and urinary tract problems. Crushed and sniffed for headaches [Cree: 93].

Roots:Steeped and drunk for blood spitting, sore throat, kidney problems, and pulmonary complaints [Algonquians: 63]. Used as a poultice on cuts [Cree: 13]. Boiled to make a tea used in urinary difficulties [Algonquin: 69]. Decoction given to women to prevent sickness after childbirth, and mixed with other plants in a decoction taken to help expel the afterbirth. Decoction taken in venereal diseases [Cree: 95]. Steeped in water and liquid taken internally to relieve indigestion [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 77]. Tea used to facilitate parturition [Ojibwa: 87]. Used as a diuretic and, mixed with beaver kidney, used to cure urinary tract diseases [Atikamekw: 73]. Poultice used in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96].

Rhizomes: Infusion used in the treatment of smallpox [66; Montagnais: 71].

Sassafrasalbidum (Nutt.) Nees

Syn.:S. variifolium(Salisb.) Ktze.

Lauraceae, Tree

sassafras (Eng.); sassafras officinal (Fr.); menagwakemins (Chippewa)

Bark roots: Infusion taken as a springtime medicine to thin the blood [Chippewa: 85].

Saururus cernuusL.

Saururaceae, Herb

Indian pepper, lizard’s tail (Eng.); saurure penché (Fr.); we-ne-se-bah-gon (Ojibwa)

Stomach medicine [Ojibwa: 86].

Schoenoplectusacutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. Löve & D. Löve

Syn.:Scirpusacutus Muhl. ex Bigelow

Cyperaceae, Herb

bulrush, tule (Eng.); scirpe aigu, grand jonc (Fr.); kichekumewusk, kiychiykāmiyuwusk, ōkīhcīkamīwask, wechahkamewuskwa, mwaskosīwan (Cree)

Stem:Boiled to make a medicine for cough and fever [Metis: 13].

Scirpusmicrocarpus J. Presl & C. Presl

Syn.:S. rubrotinctus Fernald

Cyperaceae, Herb

bulrush (Eng.); scirpe à graines rouges (Fr.); kagskinio’kis (Malecite)

Roots: Poultice used in abscesses. Steeped withIris versicolor and used to gargle a sore throat [Malecite: 65].

Scutellaria galericulataL.

Lamiaceae, Herb

marsh skullcap (Eng.); toque, tertianaire (Fr.); tcatcabonû’ksîk (Ojibwa)

Used in heart troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves and flowers: Tea and used to treat ulcer [Metis: 13] and fever [Cree: 13].

Scutellarialateriflora L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

mad-dog scullcap (Eng.); scutellaire latériflore (Fr.)

Mixed withScutellaria pilosa,Hypericum punctatum andStylosanthes elatior in a decoction drunk by women to promote menstruation. Also drunk for diarrhoea and used with other plants for painful breasts [44].

Shepherdia canadensis(L.) Nutt.

Syn.:Lepargyreacanadensis (L.) Greene

Elaeagnaceae, Shrub

soapberry, buffalo-berry (Eng.); shepherdie du Canada, graines de boeuf (Fr.); kinipikomina, kinèpikōminānahtik, kinīpikōminā(h)tik emskuwmnā(h)tik (Cree); dinjik jàk (Dene)

Decoction applied externally to treat aching limbs, arthritis, and sore head and face [Cree: 95].

Whole plant: Tea used as a tonic [Dene: 100].

Leaves and stem: Decoction drunk as a purgative and emetic [Cree: 13, 96], to relieve constipation, tuberculosis [Metis: 13], and used as a wash for cuts, swellings, and skin sores due to impetigo [Metis: 13].Shoots: Tea from new shoots drunk to prevent miscarriages and used as a wash for arthritis [Cree: 95; Metis: 13]. Taken to treat venereal diseases and blood coughing [Metis: 13].

Stem:Decoction used for venereal disease [Cree: 95].

Roots: Used in heart medicine [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Boiled and put on sore or swollen knee [Dene: 17]. Infusion used for blood coughing [Cree: 95]. Boiled with juniper berries and used as a laxative [Dene: 99]. Boiled and used as a rinse for sore lips and mouth [Dene: 98].

Bark:Softened in hot water with the bark of pin cherry to make a plaster or bandage for broken bones [Algonquin: 69].

Inner bark: Infusion used as a laxative [Cree: 95].

Berries:Eaten raw or boiled for heartburns and diabetes. Mixed with water and drunk as a medicinal tea [Dene: 17]. Eaten raw or drunk as a tea for cold or sore throat [Dene: 99].

Stem and roots:Tea used in stomach ache and diarrhoea [Dene: 99]. Decoction used in fever [Dene: 98].

*Silenelatifolia Poir. ssp.alba (Mill.)Greuter & Burdet

Syn.:Lychnisalba Mill.

Caryophyllaceae, Herb

white campion (Eng.); lychnis blanc (Fr.); basi’bûgûk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Tea used as a physic [Ojibwa: 87].

Silphium perfoliatumL.

Asteraceae, Herb

cup-plant (Eng.); silphe perfolié (Fr.); akûn’damo, asasa’weskûk (Ojibwa)

Used for stomach trouble, and hemorrhage [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Decoction taken in lung troubles and in amenorrhoea. Dried, pounded and used as a moist compress to stop bleeding from wounds [Chippewa: 47]. Tea used in rheumatic pains [Ojibwa: 87].

Sium suaveWalter

Apiaceae, Herb

water parsnip (Eng.); berle douce (Fr.); sīwaskātask, sīwaskacāskwos, ōskātask, kowchuskowitoy (Cree)

Smoked to relieve headache [Dene: 98].

Roots: Used as a tonic. Eaten raw or boiled with other plants and the decoction drunk to treat chest congestion. Part of a compound decoction used to treat heart trouble, headache, and fever [Cree: 13]. Eaten raw or prepared as a tea for sore throat, cough and cold. Tea also used to treat fever, heart problems and headache. Eaten raw as a tonic and blood cleanser [Cree: 96]. Cancer medicine [Cree: 93].

Smilax herbaceaL.

Smilacaceae, Vine

carrion flower (Eng.); smilax herbacé, raisin de couleuvre (Fr.); ma’kodji’bĭk, bîgomînaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Roots:Decoction used as a physic and in kidney troubles [Ojibwa: 47]. Used in lung troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

*Solanum dulcamaraL.

Solanaceae, Herb

bittersweet (Eng.); morelle douce-amère (Fr.); wizagapo’kl (Malecite)

Tea used to treat nausea [Mi’kmaq: 61; Malecite: 65].

*Solanum nigrumL.

Solanaceae, Herb

nightshade (Eng.); morelle noire (Fr.)

Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Solidagoaltissima L.

Asteraceae, Herb

goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or très élevée (Fr.); a’djidamo’wano (Ojibwa)

Roots: Powdered, moistened and applied as a poultice in boils [Ojibwa: 47].

Flowers: Dried, moistened with cold water and applied to ulcers. Mixed with flowers ofAgastache anethiodoraand Rudbeckia laciniata to make a poultice applied to burns [Ojibwa: 47].

Solidago canadensis L.

Asteraceae, Herb

goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or du Canada (Fr.); chachamos kakew (Cree)

Tea used for heart disease [Algonquin: 69] and fever [Algonquin: 68].

Leaves and stems: Boiled and the decoction drunk to treat kidney and bladder problems, or constipation or cold [Dene: 13].

Roots:Decoction taken to treat stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 47].

Solidagoflexicaulis L.

Asteraceae, Herb

goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or à tige zigzaguante (Fr.); a’djidamo’wano (Ojibwa)

Used in “women diseases” [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Dried and chewed to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Solidago juncea Aiton

Asteraceae, Herb

early goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or jonciforme (Fr.); a’djidamo’wano (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken internally in convulsions and in “women complaints” [Ojibwa: 47].

Solidago multiradiataAiton

Syn.:S. virgaureavar.multiradiata (Aiton) Torrey & A. Gray

Asteraceae, Herb

multi-rayed goldenrod, mountain goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or à rayons nombreux (Fr.)

Used as a tonic [Cree: 42].

Solidagospeciosa Nutt. var.rigidiuscula Torr. & A. Gray

Syn.:S. rigidiuscula (Torr. & A. Gray) Porter

Asteraceae, Herb

showy goldenrod (Eng.); verge d’or voyante (Fr.); o’zawa’bigwûn (Ojibwa)

Astringent and styptic[Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Mixed with roots ofPulsatilla hirsutissima in a decoction taken in lung trouble. Decoction taken to treat lung hemmorhage. Combined with bear fat and used as a hair ointment. Decoction used for mouth haemorrhage, as a tonic, and to treat cuts and wounds. Infusion taken to ease labor during childbirth. Boiled and used as a warm compress to treat sprain of strained muscles [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots and stem: Decoction taken as a tonic and stimulant [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves:Dried and used to make a decoction given in fever [Ojibwa: 47].

Stem: Combined with bear fat and used as a hair ointment. Boiled and used as a warm compress to treat sprain of strained muscles [Ojibwa: 47].

Sorbus americana Marsh.

Syn.:Pyrus americana(Marsh.) DC.

Rosaceae, Tree

American mountain ash, round wood, bear berries (Eng.); sorbier d’Amérique, cormier (Fr.); maskōminānātik, esniywachiywa(h)tik (Cree); mina’kwimus, wik’s (Malecite); ah-o-je-mahg (Chippewa); makoomiinaan (Ojibway); maskominanatuk (Atikamekw); mashkumenan, mashkuminânakashî (Innu)

Emetic[Algonquians: 63]. Mixed withPopulus tremuloides in a tea used to treat constipation [Innu: 72]. Mixed withPicea mariana,Picea glauca,Gaultheria procumbens,Sambucus nigra, and wine in a tea used to fortify blood [Algonquin: 68].

Leaves: Dried and chewed for throat pain [Montagnais: 71].

Bark: Steeped in hot water and given to babies to drink for general disorders and especially for cholera. Decoction drunk to treat general pains in the body and considered good for the bones [Cree: 13], also drunk to stimulate appetite and to purify the blood [Algonquians: 63]. Burned and applied to boil as a poultice. Steeped and given to mothers after childbirth, also used as a tonic [Malecite: 65]. Boiled and used to make a plaster applied to the lower back of pregnant women to facilitate childbirth [Atikamekw: 73]. Boiled and used as a paste to be applied locally on painful body parts, on arthritis or rheumatism. Ground, boiled and the decoction taken for cough. Tea used for heart problems or tootache [Montagnais: 71]. Tea used to treat arthritis and muscular pain [Cree: 96].

Roots and bark: Medicinal [Ojibwa: 86].

Inner bark: Placed in a hot wet towel and applied to swells as a compress [Montagnais: 71].

Inner bark and buds: Tea used to cure weariness and depression [Atikamekw: 73], given for cold, or combined withAcorus calamus and used as a tonic [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Infusion drunk for colic [Algonquians: 63]. Extracts used to stimulate appetite [Algonquin: 68]. Tea drunk to treat sore throat, cold and cough [Cree: 96].

Stem: Medicinal [Ojibway: 89]. Chewed and also boiled to make a decoction drunk to treat cold, cough, rheumatism, hemorrhaging, headache, heart trouble, sore chest, kidney pain, or to facilitate labor during childbirth [Dene: 13; Innu: 72]. Boiled and the steam inhaled for headache and sore chest [Dene: 13].

Sorbusdecora (Sarg.) C.K. Schneid.

Rosaceae, Tree

northern mountain ash (Eng.); sorbier plaisant (Fr.); maskōminānātik (Cree)

Branches: Decoction drunk for the treatment of back pain [Cree: 95]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Inner bark and branches: Used in diabetes [Cree: 77].

Leaves: Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Bark: Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Inner bark and cambium: Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Sorbusscopulina Greene

Rosaceae, Shrub

Greene’s mountain-ash (Eng.); sorbier de Greene (Fr.); naidídechëné (Chipewyan)

Used as a compress for pain or rubbed on chest, back and throat for cough and sore throat [Cree: 81]. Tea taken to relieve cold symptoms, headaches, sore chest, or for “blood in the body”. Tea also drunk by women giving birth to make labor easier [Chipewyan: 92].

Roots: Boiled and used to treat tuberculosis or bathe in to relieve soreness [Dene: 17]. Decoction taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98]. Herbal tea taken for back paralysis, diabetes and cancer [Cree: 93].

Stem: Decoction taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98]. Boiled and steam inhaled to relieve headache or sore chest [Chipewyan: 92].

Twigs:Herbal tea taken for general ache and heart problems[Cree: 93].

Fruits: Decoction taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Stem and roots: Boiled and taken to treat tuberculosis [Dene: 98].

Sorbussitchensis M. Roem.

Rosaceae, Shrub

Sitka mountain-ash, western mountain-ash (Eng.); sorbier de Sitka (Fr.)

Roots: Boiled and used to treat tuberculosis or bathe in to relieve soreness [Dene: 17].

Sphagnumcapillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw.

Sphagnaceae, Moss

Moss (Eng.); askīya (Cree)

Used to treat diaper rash, and to wash baby at birth [Cree: 95]. Used to treat diaper rash, toothache, urinary tract problems. Ssteam generated by putting moss in the heated stones used to treat body pain, muscle pain, to bring out fever [Cree: 80, 81].

Sphagnum fuscum(Schimp.) Klinggr.

Sphagnaceae, Moss

peat moss (Eng.); sphaigne brune (Fr.); uske, muskak, askīyāh, mīkaskwahkawow, āsāskumkwa, eskiya, awasistche(Cree)

Whole plant: Applied to cuts or skin infections before bandaging affected areas [Cree: 13]. Used to treat diaper rash, and as a baby wash at birth [Cree: 95]. Antiseptic [Dene: 17]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Spiraeaalba Du Roi

Rosaceae, Shrub

white meadow-sweet (Eng.); spirée blanche (Fr.)

Leaves and stem:Used to make a medicinal tea [Algonquin: 69].

Spiraea tomentosaL.

Rosaceae, Shrub

hardhack, steeple-bush (Eng.); spirée tomenteuse, thé du Canada (Fr.); memîsgwû’nagûg (Ojibwa)

Leaves and stem:Usedto make a medicinal tea [Algonquin: 69].

Leaves and flowers: Tea given for pregnancy sickness and to ease labor during childbirth [Ojibwa: 87].

Sporobolusheterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray

Poaceae, Herb

prairie dropseed (Eng.); sporoboleà glumes inégales (Fr.);napŏ’gûshkūns’ (Ojibwa)

Roots: Crushed by pounding or chewing and applied as a poultice to sores. Boiled and the decoction taken to induce emesis, “to remove bile” [Ojibwa: 84].

*Stachys palustrisL.

Lamiaceae, Herb

woundwort (Eng.); épiaire des marais (Fr.); ande’gobûg (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Fresh or dried and used to make an infusion taken to treat colic [Ojibwa: 47].

*Stellariamedia (L.) Vill.

Caryophyllaceae, Herb

common chickweed (Eng.); stellaire moyenne, mouron des oiseaux (Fr.); wi’nibĭdja’bibaga’no (Ojibwa)

Leaves: Infusion used as a wash for sore eyes [Ojibwa: 47].

Stereocaulonpaschale (L.) Hoffm.

Stereocaulaceae, Lichen

snow lichen (Eng.)

Used to treat diabetes [Cree: 82].

Streptopus amplexifoliusL. (DC.)

Liliaceae, Herb

solomon’s seal, eel berry (Eng.); streptope amplexicaule (Fr.)

Fruits: Used for gonorrhea, kidney troubles and for blood spitting [Algonquians: 63].

Fruits and stem:Steeped and taken in general sickness [Algonquians: 63].

Streptopuslanceolatus (Aiton) Reveal var.roseus (Michx.)Reveal

Syn.:S. roseus Michx.

Liliaceae, Herb

twisted-stalk (Eng.); streptope rose, rognons de coq (Fr.); agwĭn’gûsibûg’, nanibîte’ode’kîn (Ojibwa)

Used for physic or to make a tea for cough [Ojibwa: 87].

Flowers: Steeped to make a medicine to produce a sweat [Algonquians: 63].

Roots: Steeped and used as a poultice to treat sty [Ojibwa: 47].

Symphoricarposalbus (L.) S.F. Blake var.albus

Syn.:S. racemosus Michx.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

snowberry, wax berry, wolfberry (Eng.); symphorine blanche, graine d’hiver, graine de loup (Fr.); mahekun menes, mahekunimin, māyikaniminanahtik, mahikanimin (Cree); maĭn’gamûna’tĭg, anîgomiji’mînaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Fruits: Crushed or boiled to make a wash for sore eyes [Dene: 13].

Roots and stem: Decoction used to a treat teething pain and venereal disease [Cree: 95; Dene: 13]. Used as an eye wash and drunk to treat skin rashes or mixed with another plant to make a remedy for venereal deseases [Dene: 13].

Branches and leaves: Decoction used as a diuretic [Cree: 13].

Stem: Decoction given for kidney problems [Cree: 13].

Fruits: Infusion used to treat sore eyes [Cree: 95].

Whole plant: Infusion applied externally to treat a skin rash [Cree: 95].

Roots: Decoction used as a diuretic. Infusion given after childbirth [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction taken as a physic, or mixed withAndropogongerardii and used to treat stoppage of urine [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea used to clear up the afterbirth, and enable quicker convalescence after childbirth [Ojibwa: 87].

Symphoricarposoccidentalis Hook.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

western snowberry (Eng.); symphorine de l’Ouest (Fr.)

Leafy stems and berries:Tea taken in kidney problems [Cree: 96].

*Symphoricarposorbiculatus Moench

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

Indian currant (Eng.); symphorine à feuilles rondes (Fr.); gus’sigwaka’mĭsh (Ojibwa)

Roots: Cooled decoction made with inner bark of roots applied to sore eyes [Ojibwa: 84].

Symphyotrichumciliolatum (Lindl.) A. Löve & D. Löve

Syn.:Aster ciliolatusLindl.

Asteraceae, Herb

lindley’s aster (Eng.); aster ciliolé (Fr.); mistaskewusk, amowusk (Cree)

Roots: Tea used to treat pink eye (conjunctivitis). Ground and applied topically to stop bleeding from cuts [Metis: 13].

Symphyotrichumlaeve (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve

Syn.: Aster laevisL.

Asteraceae, Herb

smooth aster (Eng.); aster lisse (Fr.); mistahisakwiwask (Cree)

Roots:Chewed to treat toothache and teething pain. Tea used in fevers and to aid recover after childbirth [Cree: 13].

Symphyotrichumpuniceum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve

Syn.: Aster puniceusL.

Asteraceae, Herb

purple-stemmed aster (Eng.); aster ponceau (Fr.); mistasakewusk, mistahīsakwīwask, mstahiysāgiywusk, pāwistiko(h)maskīhkīh, bigonbimaskgigiah, pikōnbīmaskīgīah, pikwanpīmāskīgah (Cree); denek’áze’eya(ha)naidíé (Chipewyan)

Mixed with another plant in a decoction drunk to treat short breath [Cree: 13].

Above-ground parts: Dried, boiled and decoction drunk repeatedly to treat kidney problems, chills, and cold sweats [Cree: 13]. Used for headaches [Chipewyan: 92].

Flower: Dried, decoction used to treat headache [Dene: 13].

Roots:Dried, mixed with tobacco and smoked, or powdered and inhaled to treat headache. Used as a heart medicine, a diuretic and emetic tea, and as a medicine for sore kidneys. Mixed with other plants and smoked to treat “insanity”. Burned on hot rocks in a sweat lodge to ease breathing [Dene: 13]. Dried and used combined with other plants in a decoction used to relax and aid sleep [Metis: 13], and in a different combination to facilitate childbirth [Cree: 13]. Decoction used in fever, after childbirth, teething sickness, and amenorrhoea. Chewed for toothache. Used in facial paralysis [Cree: 95]. Dried, mixed with tobacco and smoked, or powdered and inhaled to treat headache. Used as a heart medicine [Chipewyan: 92]. Herbal water taken for kidney problems [Cree: 93].

Symplocarpus foetidus(L.) Nutt.

Araceae, Herb

skunk cabbage (Eng.); symplocarpe fétide, tabac du diable, chou puant (Fr.); sikag-buk (Chippewa)

Strong medicine [Algonquin: 69]. Smelled to treat headache [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Used withJuniper gum in tubercolosis [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Roots: Steeped to make a cough medicine [Chippewa: 85], also used for swellings [Abenaki: 67].

*Tanacetum vulgare L.

Asteraceae, Herb

common tansy (Eng.); tanaisie vulgaire (Fr.); o’ckinigi’kweäni’bĭc , muckiki’wît (Ojibwa)

Antifertility agent [Mi’kmaq: 61] and fever medicine [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves: Dried and made into a tea given in kidney troubles. Steeped and given to prevent pregnancy [Malecite: 65]. Steeped in water with equal amount of leaves ofNepeta catariaand given in fever. Decoction taken in amenorrhoea [Ojibwa: 47].

Roots: Decoction put into ear for soreness, or used to gargle (or chewed) to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

*Taraxacumofficinale F.H. Wigg.

Asteraceae, Herb

dandelion (Eng.); pissenlit (Fr.); meoskamewuskos (Cree); dado’cabodji’bĭk, wesa’usakwûnek (Ojibwa)

Juice used in cold, cough and skin diseases [55]. Plaster or poultice used for blood purification [Algonquin: 69].

Leaves, stem and roots: Hepatic, tonic, diuretic and slightly cholagogue [Cree: 74].

Leaves and roots: Taken to promote the flow of bile in liver disease, the milky latex used as a mosquito repellent [Metis: 13].

Leaves: Decoction drunk to purify blood, to treat anemia, jaundice and against nervousness [Metis: 13].

Roots: Used as a blood medicine [Ojibwa: 86]. Steeped in water with roots ofCirsium sp. and taken in confinement [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea given in heart burn [Ojibwa: 87]. Decoction drunk as a diuretic to clean blood stream [Cree: 13]. Boiled and taken in diabetes [Dene: 17].

Taxus canadensisMarsh.

Taxaceae, Shrub

Canada yew, ground hemlock (Eng.); if du Canada, buis de sapin (Fr.); ne’bagandag’ (Ojibwa); adskewacit (Atikamekw); al’nézité, sagaskôdagw (Abénaki); karkatiwahuk (Innu); tshîtshue ashtshîuâshîshku (Montagnais)

Medicinal [Innu: 72]. Used withLycopodium clavatum as a brew for weakness and fever [Algonquians: 63]. Boiled and added to whiskey for bowels and internal troubles. Boiled and given with fresh milk to the mother after childbirth [Mi’kmaq: 43]. Used in toothache [Ojibwa: 89] or by women experiencing complications after childbirth [Algonquin: 69].

Leaves: Tea used to treat rheumatism, sometimes combined withPrunus pensylvanica [Abenaki: 67; Algonquin: 69]. Tea used in fever [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Twigs: Steeped to make a tea taken as an antiscorbutic or antipyretic [Mi’kmaq: 60], also used for colds [Algonquians: 63]. Boiled withJuniperus virginiana twigs and taken internally to treat rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47]. Brewed in a tea, alone or mixed withFraxinus pennsylvanica, used for stomachache or menstrual disorders [Atikamekw: 73]. Boiled in water, mixed with grease and rolled in a towel to be applied locally to ease headache or eye problems [Montagnais: 71].

Thalictrumdasycarpum Fisch. & Avé-Lall.

Ranunculaceae, Herb

meadow rue (Eng.); pigamon pourpré (Fr.)

Roots: Infusion used to reduce fever [Ojibwa: 87].

Thaspiumbarbinode (Michx.) Nutt.

Apiaceae, Herb

bearded meadow parsnip (Eng.); panais à noeuds velus (Fr.); bûsidji’bĭkûgûk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction used in colic [Ojibwa: 47].

Thuja occidentalis L.

Cupressaceae, Tree

arbor vitae, white cedar (Eng.); thuya, cèdre (Fr.); mascakēs, masīkīsk, māsikīskāsiht (Cree); ka’gsgos (Malecite), masi’ck , mâshtshîshk (Montagnais); gi’jikan’dûg (Ojibwa); kizek, kiskens, kisgens, songup, kizigantic (Algonquin); kishig (Chippewa); malan’dak, môlôdagw (Abenaki)

Boiled and the steam inhaled for several hours under a tent to treat pleurisy [Algonquin: 68]. Used to treat swellings and to make medicinal pillows [67].

Twigs: Bruised and steeped to make a sweat drink [Algonquians: 63]. Boiled and used to stimulate synovia production and treat numb articulations [Algonquin: 68]. Burned as a disinfectant to fumigate a house where someone is sick of a contagious disease, such as smallpox [Chippewa: 85]. Used to make a steam bath to treat cold, fever, rheumatism, menstrual disorders and for women after childbirth. [Algonquin: 69]. Crushed and mixed with boiling water, the steam is beneficial for toothache [Algonquin: 69]. Decoction taken for pneumonia, powdered branches are used in various ailments. Used in a decoction or chewed to extract the juice and taken internally to treat urine retention, or a sore bladder [Cree: 95]. Steeped and taken for cough and cold. Tea used in consumption [Malecite: 65]. Mashed, steeped in boiling water and applied for heart pain [Montagnais: 70].

Leaves: Made into a poultice for swollen hands or feet [Algonquians: 63; Mi’kmaq: 60]. Fresh, mixed with bear fat and used as an ointment for rheumatism [66]. Tea used for cough, headache and as a blood purifier [Ojibwa: 87]. Crused, mixed with other plants in a decoction used as a wash and drunk to treat a facial paralysis caused by a stroke. Powdered with other plants and mixed with water to make a paste used as a poultice to treat facial paralysis caused by “bad medicine”, or to treat general pain [Cree: 13] or rheumatism [Algonquin: 68]. Pulverized, heated, spread in a cloth and pressed on the chest to treat congestion and pain. Same preparation applied to treat skin infections, cuts and abdominal pain [Cree: 80]. Brewed as a wash to treat facial paralysis. Used to treat arthritis and muscular pain [Cree: 96].

Cones: Tea used to treat colic [Algonquin: 69].

Wood: Used for ear problems [Montagnais: 71]. Rotten wood powdered and used for rashes and skin irritations [Algonquin: 69].

Charcoal: Combined with bear gall, pricked into the temples with needles to treat convulsions [Chippewa: 47].

Bark: Pounded, mixed with grease and applied to burns [Malecite: 65].

Gum: Applied to ease toothache [Malecite: 65], also applied for chest or heart pain [Montagnais: 70].

Thujaplicata Donn ex D. Don

Cupressaceae, Tree

western red cedar, gian arborvitae (Eng.); thuya géant, cèdre de l’ouest (Fr.)

Leaves:Diuretic [Cree: 44].

Leaves and fruits: Bruised and used as a headache remedy [Ojibwa: 44].

Tiarella cordifolia L.

Saxifragaceae, Herb

false miterwort (Eng.); tiarelle cordifoliée (Fr.); siskwimi’nuk (Malecite)

Roots: Steeped and given in diarrhoea [Malecite: 65].

Tilia americanaL.

Tiliaceae, Tree

basswood, whitewood (Eng.); tilleul d’Amérique, bois blanc (Fr.); wikpi/mus (Malecite)

Bark:Used for suppurating wounds [Mi’kmaq: 60].

Leaves: Infusion used as an eye wash [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Steeped and taken against worms [Malecite: 65].

Toxicodendronpubescens Mill.

Syn: Rhus toxicodendronL.

Anacardiaceae, Shrub

poison ivy (Eng.); herbe à puce (Fr.); anîmîki’bûg (Ojibwa)

Used as a poultice for swellings [Ojibwa: 86].

Trametes suaveolens(L. Ex Fries) Fries.

Polyporaceae, Fungi

diamond willow fungus (Eng.); tramète parfumée (Fr.); wiy(h)kimāsiygan (Cree)

Dried and powdered, used as part of a compound medicine [Dene: 13]. Dried fungus burned and inhaled as a medicine [Dene: 17].

Fruting body: Burned and the smoke inhaled to treat headache, or crumbled into an ear to treat earache [Dene: 13].

Trientalisborealis Raf. ssp.borealis

Primulaceae, Herb

star anemone (Eng.); trientale boréale (Fr.)

Steeped and used for general sickness [Algonquians: 63].

*Trifolium hybridumL.

Fabaceae, Herb

alsike clover (Eng.); trèfle hybride, trèfle Alsike (Fr.); moostos mechewin (Cree); ligàz’à (Dene)

Leaves:Tea drunk as a blood purifier/thinner or to treat eczema or psoriasis [Metis: 13].

Berries: Tea drunk to cure respiratory problems [Dene: 101].

*Trifolium pratenseL.

Fabaceae, Herb

red clover (Eng.); trèfle des prés, trèfle rouge (Fr.)

Tea used for whooping cough [Algonquin: 69].

Triglochinmaritima L.

Juncaginaceae, Herb

seaside arrow-grass (Eng.); troscart maritime, faux jonc (Fr.); minahikos (Cree)

Whole plant: Boiled and the decoction drunk to relieve bloody diarrhoea [Cree: 13].

Trillium erectumL.

Liliaceae, Herb

bethroot, red trillium (Eng.); trille dressé, trille rouge (Fr.); dzidziz (Abenaki)

Rhizomes and roots: Used for “women complaints” [44] and various child diseases [Abenaki: 67]. Freshly cut, and the acridity inhaled for nostril bleeding [44].

Trilliumgrandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.

Liliaceae, Herb

white trillium (Eng.); trille blanc, trille grandiflore (Fr.); inĭ’nĭwĭn’dĭbĭge’gûn (Ojibwa)

Roots: Infusion of inner bark of root dropped in the ear to treat soreness. Decoction taken in rheumatism [Ojibwa: 47].

Trillium undulatum Willd.

Liliaceae, Herb

painted trillium (Eng.); trille ondulé (Fr.); penadamabaskw (Atikamekw)

Flowers and leaves:Crushed and the pulp eaten to accelerate childbirth [Atikamekw: 73].

Triosteumperfoliatum L.

Caprifoliaceae, Herb

horse gentian (Eng.); trioste orangé (Fr.); moninswan (Ojibwa)

Roots:Decoction used for urinary pain, as a diuretic, or as a laxative [Ojibwa: 19].

Tsuga canadensis (L.)Carrière

Pinaceae, Tree

eastern hemlock (Eng.); prûche (Fr.); ksiusk (Malecite); gaga’gimĭc (Ojibwa); al’nézité (Abenaki)

Tea used for cold, boiled and applied externally for eczema and other skin infections. Used in the sudatory for women experiencing complications in childbirth [Algonquin: 69].

Bark:Tea used in cold, cough and grippe [Mi’kmaq: 43, 60]. Used to heal cuts and wounds [Ojibwa: 87, 91]. Tea used to relieve cold [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Mixed with buds or young cones ofAbies balsamea, and bark ofQuercus rubra and used for diarrhoea [Malecite: 65].

Leaves:Used for rheumatism, itching or scabies [Abenaki: 67].

Roots: Steeped withConioselium chinense, Chimaphila umbellate,and Rumex crispus and given in bladder problems [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Twigs: Steeped to make a drink as a remedy for dysentery [Ojibwa: 85]. Tea, thick syrup or paste used as a poultice for arthritis. Crushed to make a poultice for the infected navel of an infant [Algonquin: 69].

Inner bark: Powdered and applied to wounds to stop bleeding [Ojibwa: 47]. Tea used for pain and cold [Mi’kmaq: 91].

Wood: Dried and used in prickly heat or chafed skin [Malecite: 65].

Typha angustifoliaL.

Typhaceae,Herb

cat-tail flag (Eng.); quenouille (Fr.); ba’ziask (Malecite)

Roots: Steeped and taken in gravel [Malecite: 65].

Typha latifoliaL.

Typhaceae, Herb

cattail (Eng.); massette, quenouille (Fr.); otawuskwa, ōtawaskwa, ā(h)towusk, wahōtāhuk, pāsīhkan (Cree); segidebigakde’gil (Malecite); tl’okàwhi (Dene); tlh’oghk’a (Chipewyan)

Seeds: Dried and used as a poultice for burns [Cree, Metis: 13]. Poultice used in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96].

Leaves: Greased and layed on a sore twice a day [Malecite: 65].

Roots: Used in diabetes [Cree: 83]. Crushed by pounding or chewing and applied as a poultice to sores [Ojibwa: 84]. Poultice applied to wounds and infections [Algonquin: 69]. Boiled and used to wash skin infections. Compress applied to treat sore throat [Cree: 80]. Medicinal [Chipewyan: 92].

Stalk: Burned and the ashes applied to a skin rash, towel soaked in tea and applied to cure urinary tract problems [Dene: 101].

Ulmus americana L.

Ulmaceae, Tree

American elm (Eng.); orme d’Amérique (Fr.)

Bark:Steeped and drunk as a cure for lung bleeding [Algonquians: 63].

Ulmusrubra Muhl.

Syn.:U. fulva Michx.

Ulmaceae, Tree

slippery elm (Eng.); orme rouge (Fr.) ah-nib, gawa’komĭc (Ojibwa)

Used in gonorrhoea [Ojibwa: 86].

Bark: Used for lung bleeding. Used to soothe irritated throat and lungs. Used for suppurating wounds [Mi’kmaq: 60]. Decoction used for infected kidneys or as a gargle to treat ulcerated throat [Ojibwa: 47, 91].

Inner bark: Chewed fresh for cough [44]. Used for sore throat [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Chewed dry to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Umbilicariamammulata (Ach.) Tuck.

Syn.:Gyrophoradillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.

Umbilicariaceae, Lichen

lichen (Eng.); tripe de roche (Fr.); asinewakunik (Atikamekw)

Softened in boiling water and applied to stomach of women having difficulty giving birth [Atikamekw: 73].

Umbilicariamuehlenbergii (Ach.) Tuck.

Syn.: Actinogyramuehlenbergii (Ach.) Schol.

Umbilicariaceae, Lichen

rock tripe (Eng.); thets’ín.(Chipewyan); asinīwāhkona, wakoonak, asinīwākon (Cree); kwechį (Dene)

Chewed or dried, powdered, and boiled to make asyrup taken against tapeworms [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92]. Decoction used in stomachache [Cree: 13]. Soup eaten as a tonic and for breathing problems [Dene: 101].

Urticadioica L. ssp.gracilis (Aiton) Seland.

Syn.: U. lyalliiS. Watson; U. procera Muhl. ex Willd

Urticaceae, Herb

nettle (Eng.); ortie élevée (Fr.); masan, ma’zana’tĭg, (Ojibwa); katsékô’sag (Abenaki)

Used for nosebleed [Abenaki: 67].

Roots: Decoction, alone or withAthyrium filix-femina, used to treat stoppage of urine. Steeped and taken in dysentry [Chippewa: 47]. Used as a wash in skin disorders, cuts, burns and bee stings [Cree: 96]. Herbal water taken for back paralysis, fever and urinary tract problems [Cree: 93].

Leaves: Soaked in warm water and used as a poultice for heat rashes [Ojibwa: 87].

Leaves and stems:Herbal water taken for anemia[Cree: 93].

Urtica dioicaL.

Urticaceae, Herb

stinging nettle (Eng.); ortie (Fr.); masān, musān, musanusk, assan, masānah (Cree)

Decoction used to keep blood flowing after childbirth [Cree: 95].

Leaves: Decoction used as a face wash to treat acne [Cree: 13] and drunk to treat diarrhoea or intestinal worms [Dene: 13].

Roots: Decoction used as a wash to relieve itching and inflammation caused by touching stinging leaves [Cree: 13], drunk as a blood purifier, to stop internal bleeding, to correct menstrual flow, or to clear phlegm from the lungs and throat [Dene: 13]. Boiled and the steam inhaled to treat asthma [Cree: 13].

Usnea hirta(L.) F. H. Wigg.

Parmeliaceae, Lichen

miyapakwan, mithapakonuk (Cree)

Used to pack nostril to stop nosebleed [Dene: 13]

Usneasp.

Parmeliaceae, Lichen

old man’s beard moss (Eng.); mithāpākwan (Cree)

Inserted fresh into the nostril to stop nosebleed [Cree: 95].

Utriculariavulgaris L.

Lentibulariaceae, Herb

bladderwort (Eng.); utriculaire commune (Fr.)

Whole plant:Tea used to treat kidney or bladder infection [Dene: 100].Boiled and washed to treat sore legs [Dene: 98].

Leaves:Tea used to treat kidney or bladder infection [Dene: 100].

Uvularia grandifloraSm.

Liliaceae, Herb

large flowered bellwort (Eng.); uvulaire grandiflore (Fr.); wesawabi’kwonêk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Used for stomach troubles [Ojibwa: 87].

Vaccinium angustifoliumAiton

Syn.: V.pennsylvanicumLam.

Ericaceae, Shrub

late sweet blueberry, low-bush blueberry (Eng); airelle à feuilles étroites, bleuet (Fr.); mînûga’wunj, mĭna’aga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Used to treat “crazyness” [Ojibwa: 47].

Leaves: Tea used as a blood purifier [Ojibwa: 87], to treat colic and given after miscarriage [Algonquin: 69].

Roots: Tea given to induce labor during childbirth [Algonquin: 69]. Used to treat urinary problems [Algonquin: 68]. Used in diabetes [Cree: 82, 83].

Fruits:Used in diabetes [Cree: 82, 83].

Vacciniummacrocarpon Aiton

Syn.:Oxycoccusmacrocarpus (Aiton) Pursh

Ericaceae, Shrub

cranberry (Eng.); airelleà gros fruits, gros atocas (Fr.)

Twigs: Steeped and used as a medicine for pleurisy [Algonquians: 63].

Vaccinium myrtilloidesMichx.

Ericaceae, Shrub

blueberry, bilberry, whortle berry, huckleberry (Eng.); airelle fausse-myrtille, bleuet (Fr.); inimena, īyinimin, iynimin, ithīnīmina, sīpīkōmin (Cree); ts’anlhchoth (Chipewyan)

Whole plant: Component of an anticancer medicine [Metis: 13].

Fruits: Helps to reduce acne. Syrup used to stop vomiting [Metis: 13].

Stem: Boiled to make a drink taken to prevent pregnancy or in combination with other plants to prevent miscarriage, bring blood after childbirth, trigger menstruation, or slow excessive menstruation [Metis, Cree: 13].

Leaves: Decoction taken for headache [Dene: 13]. Steeped and applied for rheumatism [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots:Tea drunk for headache [Chhipewyan: 92]. Herbal water used to ease childbirth [Cree: 93].

Vaccinium oxycoccusL.

Ericaceae, Shrub

cranberry (Eng.); canneberge, atocas (Fr.); mûcki’mûnj (Ojibwa)

Tea drunk to treat nausea [Ojibwa: 87].

Vacciniumuliginosum L.

Ericaceae, Shrub

alpine bilberry, bog blueberry (Eng.); airelle des marécages (Fr.); jàk zheii (Dene)

Stem and leaves:Boiled to make a tea for cold [Dene: 99].

Berries: Eaten raw or made into a tea taken in diabetes or in heart problems [Dene: 100].

Vaccinium vitis-idaeaL.

Ericaceae, Shrub

bog cranberry, cowberry, lingonberry (Eng.); airelle vigne d’Ida, berris, graines rouges (Fr.); wesakemina, wīsaki(h)min, wiysukiymin (Cree); uîshatshiminânakashî (Montagnais); natl’at (Dene) ; nantlh’ër (Chipewyan)

Fruits: Used for stomach cleansing [Cree: 13], fever [Dene: 13; Chipewyan: 92], diabetes [Cree: 82, 83], mouth infections in children, and throat pain [Montagnais: 71]. Cooked to make a jam used for diarrhoea. Juice used to dampen contractions during childbirth [Montagnais: 71]. Juice taken for kidney problems, cough and cold, indigestion, and to improve appetite [Dene: 99]. Chewed or boiled to ease cough and cold [Dene: 101].

Roots and stems:Boiled and the decoction drunk to treat bladder problems [Cree: 13].

Whole plant and fruits:Tea drunk to treat kidney or urinary tract problems [Dene: 100].

Valeriana dioicaL.

Valerianaceae, Herb

northern valerian (Eng.); valériane (Fr.); upistagiwasus, apiscisakōwaskwos, apiscakāwaskwos, apisichīsakwasosuk, apiscīsakwīwaskwos, āpisagiywuskos (Cree)

Whole plant: Dried, boiled and the decoction drunk to treat a sore aching body, cold, chill, and congestion, helping clear the air passages [Cree: 13].

Leaves: Decoction given to a child who has lost weight to help gain weight [Cree: 13]. Decoction given to prevent miscarriage or to ease labor pain [Cree: 13]. Dried, crushed, mixed with beaver fat and applied as an ointment on facial rashes [Cree: 13].

Stem and leaves:Boiled with another plant and drunk to treat cold or fever [Cree: 13].

Roots: Decoction from a plant that has not flowered is considered a very powerful tonic. If abused it will make user very sick [Cree: 13]. Chewed to treat severe heart trouble [Cree, Metis: 13], also helps to prevent aging and wrinkles and keep active [Cree: 13].

Valerianadioica L. var.sylvatica S. Watson

Syn.:V. sylvatica Sol. ex Richardson, non F.W. SchmidtV. septentrionalis Rydb.

Valerianaceae, Herb

northern valerian, wood valerian (Eng.); valériane nordique (Fr.); apiscīsakwīwaskwos (Cree)

Roots: Chewed, put into a cloth and placed in the ear to treat earache, and rubbed on the head and temples to treat headache. Applied externally in case of seizure. Powdered, used as an ingredient for many ailments and to treat menstrual troubles. Infusion used for all purposes. Decoction used for pneumonia and in a smoking mixture for colds [Cree: 95]. Chewed or prepared as a tea for heart problems. Tea taken as a tonic and blood cleanser [Cree: 96].

Veratrum virideAiton

Syn.:V. eschscholtzii A. Gray

Liliaceae, Herb

false or indian hellebore (Eng.); vérâtre vert, tabac du diable, hellébore (Fr.)

Roots:Febrifugal, depressant and stirnutatory [Cree: 74]. Used as an emetic [Dene: 98].

*Verbascum thapsusL.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

mullein (Eng.); molène vulgaire, tabac du diable (Fr.); tcuglsia’sihonel (Malecite); mandando’hibag (Abenaki)

Necklace for teething babies [Abenaki: 67].

Leaves: Powdered and smoked to cure asthma [Algonquians: 63]. Applied to sores, cuts, and catarrh [Malecite: 65]. Steeped and smelled to relieve asthma [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Roots: Used as an expectorant [66].

Verbenahastata L.

Verbenaceae, Herb

blue vervain (Eng.); verveine hastée (Fr.)

Flowers:Dried and snuffed to stop nostril bleeding [Ojibwa: 47].

Veronicastrumvirginicum (L.) Farw.

Syn.:Leptandravirginica (L.) Nutt.V. virginica L.

Scrophulariaceae, Herb

culver’s root (Eng.); véronique de Virginie (Fr.); wi’sŏgedzhi’wik, wi’sûgidji’bĭk (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken as a purgative [Ojibwa: 44, 84] and a physic [Ojibwa: 47]. Decoction with bark ofPrunus virginiana taken before breakfast to treat scrofula [Ojibwa: 47].

Viburnum acerifoliumL.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

mapleleaf viburnum (Eng.); viorne à feuilles d’érable (Fr.); anib’ (Ojibwa)

Inner bark: Decoction to treat stomach cramps. Decoction, alone or withAlmus incana,used as an emetic [Ojibwa: 47].

Viburnumedule (Michx.) Raf.

Syn.: V. pauciflorum La Pylaie ex Torr. & A. Gray

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

pembina, squashberry, mooseberry, low bush-cranberry, (Eng.); viorne comestible, pimbina (Fr.); moosomina, mōsomina, moosominahtik, mōsōminā(h)tik (Cree); deníjíé (Chipewyan)

Ingredient in a gargle for sore throat [Cree: 95]. Tea used as a blood purifier [Metis: 13].

Twig: Tips chewed to treat sore throat [Dene: 13, Cree: 95].

Buds: Unopened buds rubbed on sore lips to heal and dry [Cree: 95; Dene: 13].

Roots: Tea used to ease teething pain [Dene: 13, Cree: 95] and as a gargle for sore throat [Dene: 13]. Boiled to make an external wash or bath for sore body parts [Dene: 17]. Medicinal [Chipewyan: 92].

Leaves and stem: Infusion taken for sore throat [Cree: 95].

Fruits: Eaten to clean the blood. Boiled and drunk for cold [Dene: 17] or to cure urinary tract problems and constipation [Dene: 101]. Boiled and taken as a cough medicine [Dene: 98].

Leaves: Crushed and applied to bee stings and burns [Dene: 100].

Viburnumlantanoides Michx.

Syn.:V. alnifolium Marsh.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

hobblebush (Eng.); viorne à feuilles d’aulne, bois d’orignal (Fr.); mistatiteminatuk (Atikamekw)

Leaves: Crushed and rubbed on head to fight headache [Atikamekw: 73].

Viburnum lentagoL.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

sheepberry, nannyberry, (Eng.); viorne lentago, alisier, bourdaine (Fr.); teta-minan, atîte’ (Ojibwa);

Leaves: Steeped and drunk as a remedy for dysuria. Poultice bound on the abdomen, over the bladder [Ojibwa: 85].

Roots: Steeped and taken to trigger menstruation, sometimes mixed with Canada lily [Malecite: 65].

Inner bark:Tea used as a diuretic [Ojibwa: 87].

Viburnum opulusL.

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

cranberries, flat seed berries, moose berry (Eng.); viorne obier (Fr.)

Fruits: Steeped and drunk for swollen glands [Mi’kmaq: 60, Algonquians: 63] and mumps [Algonquians: 63]. Boiled and the mess rubbed in the eyes for sore eyes [Algonquians: 63].

Bark:Decoction used as a diuretic [66].

Viburnumopulus L. var.americanum Aiton

Caprifoliaceae, Shrub

Bush cran berry (Eng.); viorne trilobée (Fr.); nepiminana, nīpiminān (Cree); a’nibîmî’nûga’wûck (Ojibwa)

Roots: Steeped and drunk as a remedy for pralapsus uteri. Part of the treatment consists of soaking a white cloth in an infusion and placing it in the vagina to put the uterus back into place [Ojibwa: 85].

Bark: Tea used as a diuretic, given to mothers after birth to prevent infection [Dene: 13], also given to treat insomnia [Dene, Metis: 13].

Inner bark: Tea used as a physic and to cure stomach cramps [Ojibwa: 87].

Viburnum prunifoliumL.

Syn.:V. pomifolium

Caprifoliaceae Shrub

stag-bush sloe (Eng.); viorne à feuilles de cerisier (Fr.)

Tea given to women before and after parturition [Mi’kmaq: 43].

Violabicolor Pursh

Violaceae, Herb

field pansy (Eng.); violette de Rafinesque (Fr.)

Whole plant: Infusion used to treat blood-shot eyes [Mi’kmaq: 62].

Viola canadensisL.

Violaceae, Herb

Canada violet (Eng.); violette du Canada (Fr.); maskwī’widzhī’wiko’kŏk (Ojibwa)

Roots:Decoction taken for bladder pain [Ojibwa: 66, 84].

Violalabradorica Schrank

Syn.:V. conspersa Rchb.

Violaceae, Herb

American dog violet, alpine violet (Eng.); violette du Labrador (Fr.); wewaîe’bûgûg (Ojibwa)

Whole plant: Tea given for heart trouble [Ojibwa: 87].

Viola pubescensAiton

Violaceae, Herb

downy yellow violet (Eng.); violette pubescente (Fr.); ogitē’waguns (Ojibwa)

Roots: Decoction taken in sore throat [Ojibwa: 66, 84].

Vitissp.

Vitaceae, Vine

wild grape (Eng.); vigne sauvage (Fr.); šiwi-min (Ojibwa)

Roots and branches: Steeped with roots ofCeanothus andHepatica, bark of beech, and inner bark of sugar maple, black birch, and red-osier dogwood to make a remedy for pulmonary trouble [Ojibwa: 85].

Sap: Used as a tonic to wash hair [Ojibwa: 85].

Vitisvulpina L.

Syn.:V. cordifolia Michx.

Vitaceae, Vine

frost grape, river-bank grape (Eng.); vigne des renards (Fr.); ci’wî mînûn, jo’mĭnaga’wûnj (Ojibwa)

Twigs: Tea used to clear up afterbirth and enable it to pass easily [Ojibwa: 87].

Sap: Used for stomach and bowel trouble [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Steeped and taken to treat rheumatism and diabetes [Ojibwa: 47].

Zanthoxylum americanum Mill.

Rutaceae, Shrub

prickly ash (Eng.), clavalier d’Amérique, frêne épineux (Fr.); dagawak-mins, gawa’komĭc (Ojibwa)

Bark: Hot drink together with wild ginger root, bark of sassafras roots, and rhizomes of sweet flag, taken for cold, cough, and pulmonary troubles [Ojibwa: 85]. Tea drunk for worms [Mi’kmaq: 62]. Used to treat quinsy and sore throat [Ojibwa: 87].

Roots: Decoction used to treat sore throat [Ojibwa: 47].

Fruits: Tea drunk to treat sore throat, and as a spray on the chest to cool and relieve congestion in bronchitis [Ojibwa: 87].

Zizania aquaticaL.

Poaceae, Herb

wildrice (Eng.); zizanie aquatique, folle avoine, riz sauvage (Fr.);manomin (Ojibwa)

Roots:Used for urinary infection and diabetes [Ojibwa: 89].

*Introduced species.

Do Microbes Trigger Alzheimer’s

Chronic Lyme Disease?

>Combing data from published reports, the International Alzheimer Research Center’s Judith Miklossy and colleagues had found evidence of spirochetes in 451 of 495 Alzheimer’s brains. In 25 percent of cases, researchers had identified the spirochete as Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease. Control brains did not contain the spirochetes.http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50208/title/Do-Microbes-Trigger-Alzheimer-s-Disease-/

Allen knew of recent work showing that Lyme spirochetes form biofilms,2 which led him to wonder if biofilms might also play a role in Alzheimer’s disease. When Allen stained for biofilms in brains from deceased Alzheimer’s patients, he found them in the same hippocampal locations as amyloid plaques.3

Alzheimers1_640px

Combine this with the information on herbals effective against the different forms of Lyme and similar pathogens, including biofilms they form, and you might find pleasant tasting foods, flavorings and drinks such as whole leaf stevia worth adding to your diet and able to kill several birds with one stone.

Stevia 2

The charts and photos show relative effectiveness of Stevia extract compared to antibiotics for growth and persistent phase Lyme. Stevia leaf can be bought for $20 or less per pound, as a substitute for sugar sweetener it has no pro-diabetic/insulemic effect, and although some people say they do not like the taste or aftertaste, when used in foods and drinks especially bitter or sour foods it brings out the pleasant flavors that would otherwise be swamped out by the bitter. With those foods you are damned if you do and damned if you don’t use sugar.

We could easily conclude that Stevia is among the minority of medicinal herbs that are not bitter or unpleasant in flavor. In the following article the anti-Lyme herbs mentioned are typically bitter but combining Stevia with them the result is not so distasteful and more often pleasant.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4971593/   Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681354/

Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Administering antibiotics is the primary treatment for this disease; however, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. The reason for relapse remains unknown, but recent studies suggested the possibilities of the presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia persister cells and biofilms.

Stevia Lyme

>In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of whole leaf Stevia extract against B. burgdorferi spirochetes, persisters, and biofilm forms in vitro. The susceptibility of the different forms was evaluated by various quantitative techniques in addition to different microscopy methods. The effectiveness of Stevia was compared to doxycycline, cefoperazone, daptomycin, and their combinations. Our results demonstrated that Stevia had significant effect in eliminating B. burgdorferi spirochetes and persisters. Subculture experiments with Stevia and antibiotics treated cells were established for 7 and 14 days yielding, no and 10% viable cells, respectively compared to the above-mentioned antibiotics and antibiotic combination. When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Stevia significantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi.

 

 

We Pee Navy Blue

Methylene Blue

Malaria, Alzheimers, mitigate adverse cancer treatment chemotherapeutic effects, UTIs, methemoglobinemia
>On the other hand, positive side effects of MB acting as
a tonic have also been observed; these effects are possibly
due to an enhancement of mitochondrial activity.

Since 2007, however, we have had
difficulties in obtaining sufficient MB from pharmaceutical
companies for the clinical trials in West Africa. In
Germany, MB is no longer available even in pediatric
emergency rooms (Ludwig and Baethge, 2010). In addition,
it was claimed that the available MB preparations
were not pure enough, the major contaminants being
heavy metals, azure B, and water. By contrast, we regard
the prevailing requirements of USP and EP (listed for
instance in http://www.provepharm.com/analysis.php) as appropriate.
Taking heavy metal ions as examples, copper
and chromium are essential nutrients, and it is interesting
to compare their contents in a daily MB dose with their
contents in the ingredients of a standard meal. As a
conservative physician one is often concerned about the
overblown safety requirements of postmodern medicine
which too often prevent health- or even life-saving measures.

MB is spontaneously
oxidized by molecular oxygen (O2) to give toxic
reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide or hydrogen
peroxide while MB is formed again. In this way MB is
available for the next cycle; it acts — in a functional unit
together with flavoenzymes and molecular oxygen — as a
recycling catalyst against infectious organisms (Fig. 1).
Apart from medical applications, this is the basis for using
MB as a disinfectant (Clark et al., 1925), for example as a
fungicide in aquariums (see, e.g., http://www.americanaquariumproducts.com).
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.476.2623&rep=rep1&type=pdf

(“Even at the loo we see, we pee, navy blue”)-Ditty from WWII when used as anti-malaria drug

Salt, Sodium, Scapegoats

The “counter-factual” reality of salt consumption…

salt bacon

  • A high-salt diet will not increase your risk of heart disease. Having the correct potassium to sodium balance influences your risk for high blood pressure and heart disease to a far greater extent than high sodium alone

When the crew ate more salt, they excreted more salt; the amount of sodium in their blood remained constant, and their urine volume increased. ‘But then we had a look at fluid intake, and were more than surprised,’ he said.

Instead of drinking more, the crew were drinking less … when getting more salt. So where was the excreted water coming from? ‘There was only one way to explain this phenomenon,’ Dr. Titze said. ‘The body most likely had generated or produced water when salt intake was high.'”

The other puzzling finding was that the astronauts complained of being constantly hungry when given higher amounts of salt. Interestingly, urine tests revealed they were producing higher amounts of glucocorticoid hormones, which affect both your metabolism and immune function.

Follow-up animal testing confirmed the results, showing the more salt the mice were given, the less water they drank and the more food they required to avoid weight loss. The reason why then became apparent. As the salt intake increased, the animals produced higher amounts of glucocorticoid hormones, causing increased fat and muscle breakdown.

These broken-down muscle proteins are then converted into urea, which is known to help your body excrete waste via urine. Through some still-unknown mechanism, this urea also helps your body retain water. In other words, a side effect of higher salt consumption is that it frees up water for your body to use.

However, this process is energy-intensive, which is why the animals required more food when on a high-salt diet and why the astronauts complained of hunger. Titze believes the increase in glucocorticoid hormones are also somehow responsible for the bizarre cyclical fluctuations in urine output.

“Scientists knew that a starving body will burn its own fat and muscle for sustenance. But the realization that something similar happens on a salty diet has come as a revelation,” The New York Times reports.11

“People do what camels do, noted Dr. Mark Zeidel, a nephrologist at Harvard Medical School who wrote an editorial accompanying Dr. Titze’s studies. A camel traveling through the desert that has no water to drink gets water instead by breaking down the fat in its hump.

One of the many implications of this finding is that salt may be involved in weight loss. Generally, scientists have assumed that a high-salt diet encourages a greater intake of fluids, which increases weight. But if balancing a higher salt intake requires the body to break down tissue, it may also increase energy expenditure.”

As noted by Dr. Melanie Hoenig, nephrologist and assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, “The work suggests that we really do not understand the effect of sodium chloride on the body.”12

While salt has gotten a bad rap, suspected of increasing your risk for high blood pressure and heart disease, research shows the real key to relaxing your arteries and reducing your blood pressure is actually the ratio of sodium to potassium you have — not your sodium intake alone.13

>In 2007, the authors of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (The NHANES III study) representing nearly 100 million US adults reported that there is “ a robust, significant, and consistent significant inverse association between dietary sodium and cardiovascular mortality.”2 This means people who eat more salt have a lower risk of death from heart disease and stroke.

Effective Diet Therapy

In 1939 Walter Kempner, MD introduced the rice diet for the treatment of serious medical problems, including severe hypertension, congestive heart failure, kidney failure, and diabetes at Duke University School of Medicine.19,20 In 2002 I visited the Rice Diet Clinic in Durham, North Carolina and compared notes with the doctors working at this famous facility (Dr. Kempner retired in 1992 and died in 1997 at age 94). Patients with many ailments have had their health restored with the Kempner diet of rice with fruit, and later on, vegetables and a few animal products. As a result of the pioneering work of Dr. Kempner, for almost 70 years diet therapy has been available for every doctor to cure his or her patients. The greatest obstacle to widespread deployment of this treatment has been the unfamiliar taste of the rice-based-meals due to preparation without any added salt. My 32 years of diet-focused medical experience has taught me that the major benefits of the rice diet are from the rice. Understanding that salt is not a health issue (except for the very ill) has allowed me to design a program that works for you and I for a lifetime, because it tastes good.

https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2008nl/aug/salt.htm

How to Cook Japanese Knotweed: A Szechuan Pork Stir-fry

Japanese Knotweed shoots can be cooked and eaten in many ways similar to rhubarb and asparagus.  The tart flavor is not as intense and more citric or lemony than rhubarb. The shoots can be easily peeled to remove the more fibrous outer layer or not. A post shared from another blog:

 

Kitchen Princess

Japanese knotweed stir-fry

The hipsters at Brooklyn Kitchen are NOT impressed with Japanese knotweed. It’s an invasive species! A pest! The sign says BEWARE! Still they feel the need to charge me $12.99 per pound but so it goes. A cute hipster guy in glasses behind me in line asked what it was and the cute hipster guy in glasses who was ringing me up said “It’s Japanese knotweed, it’s an invasive species.” Okay we get it.

Japanese knotweed at Brooklyn Kitchen

I asked how I should cook it and he told me to fry it with a little garlic. Usually I don’t trust attractive hipster men in glasses but I decided to take a chance and fry it with a little garlic. Turns out he was right! It’s delicious and to me tasted nothing like rhubarb as the sign had warned. I sautéed it with a little olive oil, garlic and lemon and it was stunningly delicious. Like…

View original post 343 more words

Bitter Medicine

Some herbal bitters are deliciously or pleasantly bitter especially when combined in traditional mixtures that offset the bitter with sugar for sweetness. Most Italian amaro liquors typically consumed as aperitivo or digestivo before or after meals are in that category.

amaro

http://www.drinkspirits.com/liqueur/what-to-drink-for-thanksgiving-aperitif-and-digestif/

Fernet Branca is over-the-top for most peoples tastes.

fernet_2654241b

Andrographis is a bitter herb that resembles in flavor Fernet Branca. If you have a respiratory problem you might want to try it.

Even modern pharmacology living in its new flat-earth bubble of unvalidated proxies, straw-men and no-true-Scotsman logical fallacies has come to recognize value in Andrographis:

“The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata(Burm. f.) Nees on pelvic inflammatory disease in rats through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway

In this study, oral administration of APN showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in pathogen-induced PID rats, including suppressing the infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes and reducing excessive production of cytokines or chemokines. A potential mechanism of this effect was involved in inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123283/

What, you object to being compared to a female rat? Try this study then:

Dehydroandrographolide enhances innate immunity of intestinal tract through up-regulation the expression of hBD-2

…However, DA has not been found to significantly inhibit bacterial and viral growth directly. The current study investigates the effect of DA on the expression of human β –defensin-2 (hBD-2) in human intestinal epithelial cells and the possible signaling pathways.

In summary, we have demonstrated that exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to DA caused the activation of a signaling cascade involving p38 MAPK up-regulation expression of hBD-2 in intestinal epithelial cells. This is one main reason why DA could be used for intestinal infection.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4520058/

This study demonstrates that one constituent of Andrographis, DA, despite showing no direct antibacterial or antiviral effects does so indirectly via the gut associated lymph/immune system cells.

Defensins are a class of endogenous anti-microbial peptides, AMPs, active in animals and plants. Below is another example of AMP activity:

Antimicrobial peptides like human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) play an important role in the innate immune system protecting the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion. The dietary histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors sulforaphane (SFN) and butyrate have received a great deal of attention because of their ability to simultaneously modulate multiple cellular targets involved in cellular protection.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2561129/

 

 

Got Lyme?

Sweet Annie, Sweet Stevia: The whole greater than the sum of its parts.

Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua… This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831619

Sweet Annie

Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323188/

>Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Steviasignificantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=stevia+borrelia

The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4971593/

Neuropathological evidence indicates that dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson׳s disease (PD) involves impairment of mitochondrial complex I, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and the formation of Lewy bodies. Epidemiological findings suggest that the consumption of berries rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins may reduce PD risk. In this study, we investigated whether extracts rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, or other polyphenols suppress the neurotoxic effects of rotenone in a primary cell culture model of PD. Dopaminergic cell death elicited by rotenone was suppressed by extracts prepared from blueberries, grape seed, hibiscus, blackcurrant, and Chinese mulberry. Extracts rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins exhibited greater neuroprotective activity than extracts rich in other polyphenols, and a number of individual anthocyanins interfered with rotenone neurotoxicity. The blueberry and grape seed extracts rescued rotenone-induced defects in mitochondrial respiration in a dopaminergic cell line, and a purple basal extract attenuated nitrite release from microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest that anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich botanical extracts may alleviate neurodegeneration in PD via enhancement of mitochondrial function.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24502982/