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Sweet Annie, Sweet Stevia: The whole greater than the sum of its parts.

Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua… This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831619

Sweet Annie

Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323188/

>Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Steviasignificantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=stevia+borrelia

The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4971593/

Neuropathological evidence indicates that dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson׳s disease (PD) involves impairment of mitochondrial complex I, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and the formation of Lewy bodies. Epidemiological findings suggest that the consumption of berries rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins may reduce PD risk. In this study, we investigated whether extracts rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, or other polyphenols suppress the neurotoxic effects of rotenone in a primary cell culture model of PD. Dopaminergic cell death elicited by rotenone was suppressed by extracts prepared from blueberries, grape seed, hibiscus, blackcurrant, and Chinese mulberry. Extracts rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins exhibited greater neuroprotective activity than extracts rich in other polyphenols, and a number of individual anthocyanins interfered with rotenone neurotoxicity. The blueberry and grape seed extracts rescued rotenone-induced defects in mitochondrial respiration in a dopaminergic cell line, and a purple basal extract attenuated nitrite release from microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest that anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich botanical extracts may alleviate neurodegeneration in PD via enhancement of mitochondrial function.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24502982/

 

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