No True Scotsman/Moving The Goalposts

Cheap trick or acceptable logic? Another version of the “Straw Man Fallacy?”

The namesake example of the “No True Scotsman” logical fallacy or scam goes:

“No true Scotsman eats porridge with sugar on it.”

“Angus McDuff does!”

“Well then, he’s no true Scotsman.”


I begin to recognize the currency of this flawed logic in many contexts beyond porridge.

In medicine if unorthodox treatments work for a particular condition the NTS response is that the condition did not exist or was misdiagnosed.

In politics it goes with the typical double-talk of vague promises and pandering slogans. There is great and there is Great. USA is the greatest country in the world vs. Make America Great Again.

In the world of dog breeding and kennel clubs you can find it in the standards and judging.



Na Zdrovie

A new method and substance to indirectly self-medicate, a probiotic “adjuvant” based on the interaction of bacteria and phages.

In almost all ecosystems that so far have been subjected to in-depth studies, it has been estimated that there are around ten phages for every microbial cell, rendering phages the most abundant biological entities on our planet [12]. By killing bacteria, phages significantly influence global biochemical cycles, while they are also considered to be crucial in driving microbial species diversity due to the fact that phage are species-specific [13]

Thus, by extension one could argue that in the human gut no specific bacterial strains persist in dominant numbers over time and that there is a dynamic equilibrium of functionally redundant bacterial and viral strains that continuously substitute each other in a “kill-the winner” fashion, thereby maintaining stable metabolic potential and taxonomical diversity.
>An important aspect that deserves a much more detailed investigation is the potential role of phages in defining the limits of bacterial populations in the human intestine when a dietary intervention introduces a considerable amount of bacteria. Such an approach is commonly known as probiotic treatment and consists of the supplementation of viable microbial cells in sufficient numbers so as to modify the intestinal bacterial populations in order to elicit a beneficial effect on human healt

Someone thinks it can be done…


>Giving Probiotics a Boost

Many people live in a state of dysbiosis or imbalance that not only threatens their long-term health, but may also contribute to sleep disorders, to a sense of malaise or “fogginess,” and to a range of stomach distress issues that cannot be explained by a specific disease. Fortunately, many studies have shown that positively changing the microbiome—shifting it toward a healthy profile and away from dysbiosis—can also change symptoms and disease risk.14,35,36

One important way of improving the intestinal microbiome is through the use of probiotic bacteria. Probiotics are a great additive therapy that increase the abundance of organisms that can rebalance an ailing microbiome. In some cases, however, probiotics by themselves have difficulty competing with the more aggressive microbes that contribute to dysbiosis in the first place.

A more comprehensive approach is to use probiotics in combination with another therapy, one that selectively targets and reduces the troublesome bacteria that are taking over the microbiome. This approach of targeting harmful bacteria while replenishing beneficial bacteria can make way forprobiotics to better help restore the microbiome to a healthy, balanced state. That is how phage therapy works.

Phage therapy reduces potentially troublesome organisms that are overabundant in the microbiome, allowing beneficial organisms to flourish. This helps restore the microbiome to a healthy, balanced state.37

>After 24 hours, compared with the control group, animals in the phage-treated group gave powerful evidence of a reduction in the disease-causing bacteria as can be seen on the following page:

  • About a 10-fold decrease of E. coli in the small intestine
  • About a 100-fold decrease of E. coli in the colon (large intestine)
  • About a 100-fold decrease of E. coli in fecal matter

At the same time, the phage-treated animals showed remarkable increases in the beneficial (B. longum) bacteria as follows:

  • About 100-fold increase of B. longum in the small intestine
  • About 100-fold increase of B. longum in the colon
  • About 40-fold increase of B. longum in fecal matter

This study also revealed marked differences in the appearance of tissue samples and digestive function across the different groups of mice.

Mice treated with E. coli and B. longum alone were constipated, and intestinal segments showed swelling, redness, and leaks compared with healthy animals. The mice given B. longum and E. coliplus the phage mixture had normal bowel movements, while their intestinal tissues showed no detrimental changes.

And the product being pitched:

Supplement Facts
Serving Size 1 liquid vegetarian capsule
Amount Per Serving
Proprietary Probiotic Blend 15 Billion CFU†
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14; Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04; L. paracasei Lpc-37; L. rhamnosus Lr-32; B. bifidum/lactis Bb-02; B. longum Bl-05
TetraPhage Blend 15 mg
LH01 – Myoviridae; LL5 – Siphorviridae; T4D – Myoviridae; LL12 – Myoviridae
Other ingredients: glycerin, vegetable cellulose (capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, silica, purified water, stearic acid, chlorophyllin.


†Colony Forming Units at time of manufacture.

Dosage and Use
  • Take one (1) capsule daily, with or without food, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner.