Tuxedo and Trenchcoat

Hunter T

Recently ran across several studies and analyses about fiber and lung function. Confirms what I first learned feeding flax and psyllium to a dog Trenchcoat (or was it her mother Tuxedo?) who had polyps obstructing in the gut, then seeing the beneficial effects to all the dogs. No more respiratory infections, no kennel cough, no need for the rotten bordetella vaccine. At the time more than 25 years ago people said, how can feeding fiber change the dog’s resistance to infection and congestion in the lungs?

I told Dominique Grandjean, the Alpirod chief vet, about the psyllium husk and it was added to the Royal Canin “sausage” provided to their sponsored teams. There are many proxies, and proxies for proxies, related to prebiotics and health. Butyrate and propionate are sometimes used. A problem that makes many such studies no better than anecdotes for relevance to other situations is that the prebiotics interact with the other foods eaten at the same time and with the specific host individual’s microbiome immediately, initially, and then over a period of many meals. But, to say, the husk of the plantago seed aka psyllium is extremely hydrophilic and forms a viscous mass that probably during passage through the GI tract entrains other food that is not otherwise dietary fiber but reaches the large intestine where effectively it is.

A small amount of certain fiber/prebiotic can have major effects. I was reminded also of  konjac fiber in addition to psyllium/plantain, oats, Aloe vera gel, marshmallow roots and leaves…
>This study provides the first evidence that dietary fiber is independently associated with better lung function and reduced prevalence of COPD.
More on the general subject prebiotics and health:

The general benefit to health of dietary fiber is demonstrated in the results of a longevity study conducted in China, see in an earlier post:



Seize, Crimp, Swage

Tools, fittings and hardware from diverse fields used also for sleds and mushing equipment


Working on the identification and explanation of what’s shown:

Upper level, on yellow plastic, left to right: 1. rolls of sled cables made of steel wire cable (7X7?) coated with black plastic, eyes on the ends swaged with aluminum oval swages (2 such swages are sitting on the larger tool to the right) 2. tool for crimping hose clips/clamps, can also be used on rubber shock cord, 4 such clamps in the middle below, 2 that are ready for use, 2 already clamped tight but with nothing inside 3. multiple opening/size swaging tool used and sold for wire cable aircraft and other applications 4. rubber shock cord hanging down onto the plywood with loop/eye on the end clamped tight/swaged using that tool and thin wall oval sleeve sitting next to the loop/eye (thin wall style oval sleeve in view as purchased was cut to make 2 shorter pieces then cut ends cleaned with wire brush and countersink tool to remove burrs to prevent cut and fray the outer braid on shock cord.

Lower level sitting on plywood bench, left to right: 1. tool for closing/crimping wire clips used on rope and rubber shock cords, red handles 2. wire cable with swaged eyes, oval sleeve/swage covered in heat shrink, center section with white plastic sleeve, used as snow hook/anchor hanger between driving bow stanchions 3. wire clips/rings 4. hose clamps 5. another tool for closing/tightening wire clips or pig rings 6. shock cord with loop on end and full size thin wall oval sleeve.

Sources and suppliers found on the Internet under tools, fittings, hardware, marine, boating, aircraft, cable, ultra-light and combinations of these tags.

The aircraft wire cable tool and fittings and oval sleeves shown were first used to make cable ganglines starting in the 1980s . Then for the single stanchion Aerosled design front and back stay cables.


Sleds Aero

Timo Jokela’s design below:

Sleds Timo1


Dissecting Longevity

Dissecting the Big Data

There is a marvelous phenomenon in Bama county, Guangxi province, China, where the ratio of centenarians was the highest in China. According to the Population Census of China in 2010 [17], there were 80 centenarians in the population of 224,637, reaching to a ratio of 35.6 centenarians per 1 × 105persons [18]. The ratio of centenarians in this region far exceeds the world longevity county standard specified by the United Nations (7.5/100,000) [19]. Nevertheless, few researches have been focused on the metabolites and element profiles of elderly people living in Bama longevous region (LR) because of their traditional and conservative lifestyle.

The study was conducted in the Bama district and Xixiangtang district of the Guangxi province, China, during the period from 2013 to 2015. The Xixiangtang district was selected as the non-longevous region (NLR), where the ratio of centenarians was relatively lower [18] (only three centenarians in the population of 1,156,173 [17], a ratio of 0.26 centenarians per 1 × 105 persons), and the climatic environment was similar with the Bama district.

longevity china nutritents

Longevity Region Centenarians / LR Elderly / Non LRE

Longevity china scfa

Table 3 has some “poke your eye out” differences comparing both LR to NLR

longevity china analysis

Table 4 above and Table 5 below show the relative importance of the variables measured. Table 5 is easier to read and identify the variables such as Total SCFA and specific short chain fatty acids Acetic, Propanoic, Valeric, Butyric, and two minerals, Cobalt and Manganese.

longevity china analysis 2

There were significant differences in acetic acid (p = 0.000), total SCFA (p = 0.000), Mn (p = 0.000), Co (p = 0.000), propionic acid (p = 0.000), butyric acid (p = 0.000) and valeric acid (p = 0.000) among the three groups; the concentrations of these differential components in the LRC group were relatively higher. Therefore, the seven significant differential components could serve as the characteristic components closely related to centenarians from the LR.

There was a significant positive correlation between dietary fiber intake and butyric acid contents in feces, and the correlation coefficient was highest (r = 0.896, p < 0.01). The other short chain fatty acids were also positively associated with dietary fiber intake (p < 0.05). In addition, the contents of the SCFAs were also significantly associated with the intake of energy, protein, vitamin A and nicotinic acid (p < 0.05).

(Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037549/ )

*The lead to this article was a study finding a positive correlation between gut valeric acid and lower Parkinsons and Alzheimers incidence.



Flu Vaccine Dystrophy

Flu Vaccine Paradox

Among the common flaws of so-called “Evidence-Based” Medicine:
*Over-reliance on proxies (antibody titers vs. true performance measures of health and illness) and thereby cherry-picking the criteria to give the desired results
*Reductionist/Mechanistic Arrogance leading to confirmation bias and assumptions that unproven is dis-proven, dismissing alternative hypotheses for which there is no currently known etiology/mechanism

It turns out the 2016-2017 influenza vaccine had “no clear effect” in those between the ages of 18 and 49. Ditto for the elderly. In fact, influenza-related hospitalizations among seniors were the highest they’ve been since the 2014-2015 season, which was rated as “severe.”
>A 2009 U.S. study compared health outcomes for children between 6 months and age 18 who do and do not get annual flu shots and found that children who receive influenza vaccinations have a three times higher risk of influenza-related hospitalization, with asthmatic children at greatest risk.32
>With each successive annual flu vaccination, the theoretical protection from the vaccine appears to diminish.28,29 Research published in 2014 concluded that resistance to influenza-related illness in persons over age 9 years in the U.S. was greatest among those who had NOT received a flu shot in the previous five years.30
>Another 2006 study43 showed that, even though seniors vaccinated against influenza had a 44 percent reduced risk of dying during flu season than unvaccinated seniors, those who were vaccinated were also 61 percent less like to die BEFORE the flu season ever started.
This finding has since been attributed to a “healthy user effect,” the idea of which is that older people who get vaccinated against influenza are already healthier and therefore less likely to die anyway, whereas those who do not get the shot have suffered a decline in health in recent months.
>Statin drugs — taken by 1 in 4 Americans over the age of 45 — may undermine your immune system’s ability to respond to the influenza vaccine.33,34 After vaccination, antibody concentrations were 38 percent to 67 percent lower in statin users over the age of 65, compared to non-statin users of the same age.
( www.articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/11/09/2017-2018-flu-vaccine-update.aspx )

The article mentions immune senescence as one possible cause of vaccine ineffectiveness. >A vital immune system is composed of a healthy balance of naive T-cells that attack new invaders and memory T-cells that attack previously known invaders. However, after a naive T-cell attacks a new threat, it becomes a memory T-cell, which will only go after a threat that it remembers.2,3 The result is that the delicate immune balance tips and we have a surplus of memory T-cells and a deficit of naive T-cells. With this imbalance, our body is less able to defend itself against new invasions. This produces a less-vigilant immune system — or immune senescence.4,5 This oral formula of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Reishi mushroom offers tri-mechanism immune support. Cistanche plant extract stimulates the development of naive T-cells for defending against new invaders. Reishi mushroom boosts the function of the innate immune cells, the immune system’s first line defenders. Pu-erh tea is rich in polyphenols and other bioactive compounds to promote bone marrow health, which in turn supports healthy cellular immune function. Taken together, these natural extracts provide a robust, youthful immune response. (http://www.lifeextension.com/Vitamins-Supplements/item02005/Immune-Senescence-Protection-Formula)

I fixed the link on the blog to the source Mercola site but not yet fixed the reference links to the original research. Regarding conflicting or dueling data, it’s more evidence of cherry-picking proxies. What are the controls, what is the population studied and who is it most relevant to/for, what are the endpoints? I notice a discrepancy in some studies using antibody levels, others confirmed cases of influenza, others influenza cases requiring hospitalization. Who should you trust? No one, but use your own best judgement. I remember getting really really sick from the damn swine flu shot long ago. I remember the results of parainfluenza intranasal kennel cough vaccination in dogs vs. adding psyllium husk to their food, the later being the clear winner. I remember generally most years taking the flu shot I was sick once or twice anyway and some years with no shot I was not sick at all and never as seriously ill as the years when I took the vaccine. What seems most convincing, compelling and actionable to me is the information about immune senescence.

Tobacco Kills!

…Fungus gnats, aphids and other garden pests. Especially seems to be a valuable companion plant for indoor gardening where the absence of UV light and larger predatory insects (like ladybugs) allows some of them to proliferate unchecked.

Woodland Tobacco, Nicotiana sylvestris, an ancestral hardy species, is the best of the Nicotiana genus in my opinion. The sticky resinous leaves attract the pests where they remain to die. Are they immobilized first or absorb some nicotine and other Tobacco pathogens or succumb to a combination of effects? For an indoor gardener it does not matter.


The seeds are small and slow to reach working size. The one tiny plant in the foreground and the two behind are Woodland tobacco. There are already 14 dead fungus gnats on the larger plants.


This tobacco in a quart pot is doing its companion job well. Potted tobaccos can be moved around easily to be positioned beside any plant where aphids or fungus gnats appear. In the top left corner is a leaf from Japanese mugwort, Yomogi. So far no pest insects there but to the right and nearby are French tarragon that seem to be more susceptible.

I have grown a half dozen other Tobacco species. The next two in order of companion plant potentcy are N rustica, “Hopi” Tobacco in some seed catalogs, and N alata, “Jasmine” Tobacco. Hopi Tobacco has large seeds and grows to size faster but also bolts quickly to flower but the flowers don’t amount to much. N alata is slow to bolt, like the Woodland Tobacco, and also like the Woodland species when it does flower has beautiful persistent long trumpet shaped blossoms. Both emit a jasmine fragrance from dusk to dawn.

For a faster start rather than planting only Woodland Tobacco to catch up during the indoor season, an indoor gardener might plant Hopi Tobacco and Woodland Tobacco seeds as early as reasonable before moving or starting other plants indoors.

bountifulgardens.com sells seeds of Woodland Tobacco and Hopi Tobacco.

More info about historic and counter-conventional medicinal uses of Tobacco:





The Goldenseal of Approval


“Feets good!” Richard Beck called out to Vi as our two teams passed her stationary beside the snowmobile along the 50 mile trail of the Yellowknife Canadian Championship Dog Derby.

Bronson Beck

Richard Beck used glycerin to protect his dogs’ feet.

At the time of the ’74 Iditarod Preparation H and a copper solution Kopertox were among the treatments to protect and heal sled dog foot problems.

Chilean veterinarian Marcelo Riquelme recommended a commercial product Plastibase derived from a medicinal herb, gotu kola, Centella Asiatica, for skin repair, healing cuts and wounds.

I covered most of the “prior art” here:


Since that article I found two other herbal remedies to recommend, Aloe vera (or other aloes such as more cold-hardy and possibly more potent Aloe arborescens which can be grown as easily as Aloe vera), and Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis. Both can be used as powder or in water.

One of my dogs had an ulcer on the top of the wrist that would not respond to any of the medications I tried over many months. Licking the sore probably contributed to the problem. Finally a Goldenseal root water extract that I made had immediate results. It promotes healing and deters licking because Goldenseal is extremely bitter.

I have used Goldenseal on many other cuts and sores since then. This is the most extreme example:


The photo shows the ulcer already much improved! Because when I first noticed, it looked so bad I was sickened myself to look at it. I thought the bare hip bone was exposed in the area that shows as a deeper and darker scab. So I began to spray the Goldenseal on twice a day.



The sequence covers about one month.



FWIW, an article about informed consent for common veterinary medications and procedures. Could also be relevant to vaccinations required for participation in sled dog races.

Posted from another source, identification removed.
>Whether or not you have a nice vet who you can trust, a vet actually wrote the following in a veterinary publication. It was in relation to microchipping, but it applies to everything a vet does:
“A fiduciary must not misleadingly impart only half truths. A statement that does not present the whole truth may be regarded as misrepresentation (Tate v Williamson [1886] LR 2 Ch App 55).”
So the point, and the only point, I have sought to make about vets in posts today, is that the profession must tell us the truth and allow us to make informed decisions.
They should not mislead us by telling us that we need to vaccinate every year.
They should never vaccinate without advising us that there could be an adverse reaction.
They should really have the knowledge if they want to advise us, which means they must also tell us that vaccines can cause allergies, autoimmune diseases, brain damage, cancer, leukaemia, arthritis, epilepsy, skin problems, and many other serious conditions. And they can also kill our dogs.
When they tell us that we MUST vaccinate every year against leptospirosis, they should also tell us that the Lepto4 vaccine from MSD is under surveillance by the European Medicines Agency, and that it has killed 120+ dogs in the UK, and caused over 2,000 adverse reactions, many of them very serious debilitating reactions.
They should also tell us that the lepto vaccine raises IgE antibodies for five years, which means it puts our dogs into an allergic state.
They should tell us that lepto is a rare disease in the UK; that it’s mostly associated with hotter, wetter, climates. They should also let us know that there are only 2 or 4 lepto serovars (versions) in the vaccine, but some 200 out there in the field.
When they advise us to give the kennel cough vaccine, they should be able to tell us that the WSAVA calls kennel cough an unvaccinatable disease. They should also tell us that the kennel cough vaccine causes kennel cough – it’s in the datasheets for all to see … but they don’t give us the datasheets, do they?
Vets should also know that the aerosol kennel cough vaccine is on record for causing a whooping-cough-like illness in humans, and that immunocompromised humans must avoid dogs who have had this vaccine for as many as seven weeks.
What they shouldn’t be doing is taking part in MSD’s annual sales jolly – National Vaccination Month, also known as Vaccine Amnesty. This fraudulent marketing campaign tells us that dogs have ‘lapsed’ if they haven’t been vaccinated in the last 18 months (not true), and they should absolutely not give a full puppy series because it’s dangerous.
Similarly, if they want to prescribe antibiotics, they need to inform pet owners that antibiotics can give rise to serious health conditions associated with gut dysbiosis, and they should know how to diagnose and fix gut dysbiosis (which they appear not to be able to do).
And if they want to prescribe harsh chemicals to deal with parasites, they need to be aware, and share with you, the fact that these chemicals can and do kill dogs, too.
This is because they are ‘fiduciaries’, which means they are ‘experts’ who we pay because we believe they know more than us, and that it’s safe to follow their advice.

AD Is No Joke

… but if you have it you will not appreciate nor be offended by anything written here.

Nancy and Ronnie go to a restaurant in California not too far from their ranch.


The waiter says, My name is Alfons and I will be your server… the special today is Lomito a la Pobre. Nancy says, I will have that. And what about the vegetable? replies the waiter. He will have the same, says Nancy.

Bacterial biofilms may play a role in lupus, research finds

Understanding how biofilms trigger autoimmunity may ultimately lead to changes in patient treatment, Dr. Gallucci said. “So understanding how the biofilms affect flares could lead to a different treatment approach. Now, they give immune suppressive drugs. Maybe you want to do something else, like treat the underlying infection.”



Alzheimer’s Disease: Assessing the Role of Spirochetes, Biofilms, the Immune System, and Amyloid-β with Regard to Potential Treatment and Prevention

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an infectious disease caused by spirochetes, and these spirochetes form biofilms, which attract the innate immune system.

Where spirochetes have been found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it may be considered an infectious disease; this is the first and most important consideration [1, 2]. It is also a chronic disease, a biofilm-associated disease, [3] and an autoimmune disease [4]. Further, it is a debilitating disease, a socially-destructive disease, an exceedingly expensive disease, and, lastly, a deadly disease [5]. This review will focus on the biofilm portion of the disorder as well as the autoimmune response. It will also touch on some rational therapeutic concepts for this most irrational of diseases.

The infectious nature of AD was revealed when spirochetes (both dental and Lyme) were shown to be present in the brains of affected patients [1]. The dental microbes travel from the oral cavity during times of disruption of the dental plaque and subsequent bacteremia following dental procedures; i.e., any time blood is seen. The hippocampus (which is the initial site of cerebral involvement in AD) is approximately 4 cm from the posterior pharynx. Lyme borrelia travel to the brain via the blood stream during the secondary stage of that disease following the erythema migrans lesion [6]. This secondary stage is characterized by fever, myalgias, arthralgias, and other systemic symptoms. The spirochetes have an affinity for neural tissue and pass through the blood-brain barrier easily [7].

Once the spirochetes are in the brain, they attach, divide (albeit very, very slowly) [8], and multiply. When they reach a quorum, they begin to spin out a biofilm (Fig. 1) [9]. This represents approximately 150 spirochetal cells which are 0.3 microns in diameter (10 cells are necessary on a two-dimensional culture plate for a quorum to begin). Because of the exceedingly slow division, it takes approximately 2 years to accumulate sufficient organisms to make one biofilm. The biofilm is protective and is a response of the organisms to ensure their survival, inasmuch as it encases them in “slime” (Fig. 2).

Quorum sensing is one triggering mechanism for the production of biofilms; other organisms in other diseases may form biofilms when subjected to different stimuli. These stimuli include salt and water, as seen in eczema and tinea versicolor [10, 11]. Low dose antibiotics and quorum sensing are seen in psoriasis [12] and arthritis [4]. Further, elevated temperatures and exposure to alcohol and other chemicals promote biofilms [13].

None of the commonly used antibiotics penetrate biofilms; and, none of the immunologic molecules from either arm of the immune system, whether innate or adaptive, are able to penetrate either.

…This is the very essence of autoimmunity, namely the body attacking itself; this occurs when the body’s own innate immune system produces TNF-α or Aβ and attacks the biofilm encasing the spirochetes. In the process of doing this, the surrounding tissue is destroyed instead. Such is the case with the biofilm produced by staphylococcus in eczema and streptococcus in psoriasis; these biofilms call forth the innate immune system and the whole process of tissue destruction is set in motion [4]. The consequences of AD are much more dire however, because they lead to total destruction of the mind.

Where the pathology is the same and where both diseases are caused by spirochetes, and where spirochetes are sensitive to penicillin, a reasonable approach would be to follow the same treatment schedule as syphilis [21]. With that treatment, penicillin administered at any time prior to the onset of tertiary syphilis is curative. The same can reasonably be said for AD; penicillin administered any time prior to the onset of tertiary disease would also be curative. Lyme disease is most closely aligned with syphilis with erythema migrans equivalent to the chancre. In most cases, it is one tick bite compared to one chancre, so the treatment could be reasonably the same [7].

None of this is codified; but, the current treatment is most likely harmful with the biofilms being dispersed without the spirochetes being killed. This would conceivably lead to many more biofilms, because all the spirochetes within the previous biofilm are capable of making new biofilms.

The story of AD is then one of spirochetes that make biofilms that activate the innate immune system. The first responder is TLR 2 and TLR 2 generates NF-kB and TNF-α that not only damage tissue in an attempt to kill the biofilm-encased spirochetes, but also lead to the production of Aβ. All of the foregoing leads to dementia. Treatment with a bactericidal antibiotic with a concomitant biofilm disperser seems most reasonable; but, as has been stated previously, any neurologic damage is irreversible. It is therefore of the utmost importance to treat early in the course of this disease.


Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques

The present results demonstrate that Aβ and bacterial DNA are important constituents of pure in vitro Borrelia biofilms and those formed in senile plaques in vivo. These results are additional evidence that senile plaques are formed by spirochetal colonies and correspond to bacterial biofilms. Biofilm formation in senile plaques further sustains chronic infection and inflammation and contributes to the development of slowly progressive dementia in AD.





Glycerol, Glycerine, Glycerite

Many healthy and beneficial uses in the garden, in the kitchen, in the pantry, in the medicine chest, in the locker room. Some endurance athletes ingest glycerol to improve hydration during exercise. It has a sweet taste but as a carbohydrate its energy value is greater than common sugar with less glycemic and insulemic effects.

Works so well that the World Anti-Doping Agency banned it! (No, they banned it not because it is harmful,  it is not, nor that it enhanced performance in any way inherently illegal, but because it might possibly be used to mask substances that are.) Guilty by association, like DMSO with sled dogs.

This patent application (following the wiki information) for applications of glycerol as a fungicide in agriculture describes some uses and tangentially suggests others.

glycerol apples

Fruit (apple) trees treated with glycerine have softer leaves which are greener in colour than trees in the comparative test treated with the synthetic fungicide Maconzeb.

>As a sugar substitute, it has approximately 27 kilocalories per teaspoon (sugar has 20) and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. It does not feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavitiesGlycerol has a caloric density similar to table sugar, but a lowerglycemic index and different metabolic pathway within the body, so some dietary advocates[who?] accept glycerol as a sweetener compatible with low-carbohydrate diets.      It is also recommended as an additive when using polyol sweeteners such as erythritol and xylitol which have a cooling effect, due to its heating effect in the mouth, if the cooling effect is not wanted.      When used as a primary “true” alcohol-free botanical extraction solvent in non-tincture based methodologies, glycerol has been shown to possess a high degree of extractive versatility for botanicals including removal of numerous constituents and complex compounds, with an extractive power that can rival that of alcohol and water–alcohol solutions.[citation needed] That glycerol possesses such high extractive power assumes it is utilized with dynamic methodologies as opposed to standard passive “tincturing” methodologies that are better suited to alcohol. Glycerol possesses the intrinsic property of not denaturing or rendering a botanical’s constituents inert (as alcohols – i.e. ethyl (grain) alcohol, methyl (wood) alcohol, etc., do). Glycerol is a stable preserving agent for botanical extracts that, when utilized in proper concentrations in an extraction solvent base, does not allow inverting or reduction-oxidation of a finished extract’s constituents, even over several years.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycerol[13]   

(Still trying to find out what are “dynamic extractive” methods referred to above!)

The present invention relates to the use of glycerine and/or its derived compounds as an active fungicidal and bactericidal substance. The present invention also relates to a fungicidal and bacterial compound comprising glycerine and/or its derivatives as an active substance, in combination with at least one other active substance selected from the common fungicides and bactericides, as well as use of the compound in the preventive and/or curative treatment of plants…     This problem (with existing fungicides uses) was solved by the Applicant, who surprisingly found that glycerine as it is or in a water-based solution possesses unexpected fungicidal and bactericidal properties against some types of fungi and bacteria. In particular, glycerine as it is, or a water-based solution containing glycerine, is successfully used in the preventive and/or curative treatment of many diseases which affect and devastate agricultural crops, in particular in wine growing, vegetable growing and fruit growing. Moreover, the Applicant found that as an active substance glycerine demonstrates a greater fungicidal and bactericidal action when used in combination with other substances with a known fungicidal and/or bactericidal action.

Basically, glycerine competes with the fungi and bacteria for what water there is available. By a hygroscopic action, the glycerine extracts water from the bacteria and fungi, preventing the latter from proliferating.

Glycerine also acts indirectly by stimulating the plant’s defences against infections caused by fungi and bacteria.

Glycerine has a softening and toning effect on the surface of the leaf, stimulating the formation of chlorophyll and unfolding of the leaf.     https://www.google.com/patents/WO2002069708A1?cl=en

More related to glycerol and plant growth here:     http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/46/12/1650.full

(A month ago I had several plants suffering fungus/mildew on the stems and leaves. I mixed glycerol, powdered sulfur and horsetail powder then applied it on the worst spots on the lower stem. Now recovered!)

Many studies have shown that increases in body water by 1 L or more are achievable through glycerol hyperhydration. This article analyses the evidence for glyceroluse in facilitating hyperhydration and rehydration, and provides guidelines for athletes wishing to use this compound. An analysis of the studies in this area indicates that endurance athletes intending to hyperhydrate with glycerol should ingestglycerol 1.2 g/kg BW in 26 mL/kg BW of fluid over a period of 60 minutes, 30 minutes prior to exercise. The effects ofglycerol on total body water when used during rehydration are less well defined, due to the limited studies conducted. However, ingesting glycerol 0.125 g/kg BW in a volume equal to 5 mL/kg BW during exercise will delay dehydration, while adding glycerol 1.0 g/kg BW to each 1.5 L of fluid consumed following exercise will accelerate the restoration of plasma volume. Side effects from glycerol ingestion are rare, but include nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort and light-headedness. In summary, glycerol ingestion before, during or following exercise is likely to improve the hydration state of the endurance athlete.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20092365

Improvements in endurance time, time trial performance and total power and work output have been seen during exercise following glycerol-induced hyperhydration or rehydration. Another recent trial showed that the increased body weight associated with the extra fluid does not inadvertently affect running economy. Concerns that the haemodilution associated with the fluid retention in the vascular space may be sufficient to mask illegal doping practices by athletes led the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to add glycerol to its list of prohibited substances in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that doses of > 0.032 ± 0.010 g/kg lean body mass (much lower than those required for rehydration) will result in urinary excretion that may be detectable, so athletes under the WADA jurisdiction should be cautious to limit their inadvertent glycerol intake.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075560

I Am Curious Yellow: Berberine


Barberry contains berberine

Another example of the historical flaws and limitations of proxy and mechanism-based research:

…Blood clearance is so fast and biotransformation in the liver so rapid that berberine disappears from the blood faster than it can be measured. Berberine metabolites may be responsible for berberine’s biological action.  New clinical applications for the alkaloid berberine have come to light in recent years. Applications related to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and berberine’s possible therapeutic use in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipdemia are reviewed in this article. Potential applications related to cancer are not discussed here but are reserved for a second review.   http://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2012-12/clinical-applications-berberine

This review will focus on a few natural products, especially on resveratrol (RES), curcumin (CUR) and berberine (BBR). RES is obtained from the skins of grapes and other fruits and berries. RES may extend human lifespan by activating the sirtuins and SIRT1 molecules. CUR is isolated from the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa). CUR is currently used in the treatment of many disorders, especially in those involving an inflammatory process. CUR and modified derivatives have been shown to have potent anti-cancer effects, especially on cancer stem cells (CSC). BBR is also isolated from various plants (e.g., Coptis chinensis) and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat diseases such as adult- onset diabetes. Understanding the benefits of these and other nutraceuticals may result in approaches to improve human health.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509453/

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids. It is found in such plants as Berberis [e.g. Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Berberis aristata (tree turmeric)], Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellowroot), Phellodendron amurense [2] (Amur corktree), Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread), Tinospora cordifolia, Argemone mexicana (prickly poppy) and Eschscholzia californica (Californian poppy). In vitro it exerts significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In animal models berberine has neuroprotective and cardiovascular protective effects. In humans, its lipid-lowering and insulin-resistance improving actions have clearly been demonstrated in numerous randomized clinical trials. Moreover, preliminary clinical evidence suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases. Altogether the available evidences suggest a possible application of berberine use in the management of chronic cardiometabolic disorders.    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27671811